Usage and Routine in the Navy

This was a series of articles published from 1 APR 1865 to 3 JUN 1865 in Army and Navy Journal detailing routine shipboard life in the Civil War Navy for the benefit of the large number of volunteer officers then being temporarily commissioned into the service from the civilian fleets.

No. 1 (Published 1 APR 1865)

Attention to the minor and comparatively trivial matters of detail must affect materially and favorably the good order, the tone, the efficiency, of a man-of-war. Efficiency being the ultimate aim, it may be regarded as the aggregate effect of regard for detail in all matters, whether of greater or minor importance, and nothing can be considered unimportant that tends to promote efficiency by systematizing the performance of duty. In our Navy the duties of persons on board ship are yet, to some extent, fixed by usage, that has its origin in the sanction of experience, that is more often traditional than laid down in regulation.

It is thought that a few hints upon usage and routine in our Navy may not be unacceptable at the present time to the service.

When "all hands" have been called for any evolution, or for the performance of any matter of duty, it is presumed that every line officer, every petty officer, and every enlisted man on board, not especially excused by the commander, is required to take a specified station and to assist in the accomplishment of the object in view. To the orderly sergeant of marines is assigned general police and guard duties; the surgeon's steward and the nurses attend below to the wants of the sick; the paymaster's steward has in charge the paymaster's issuing room and storerooms; the yeoman the general storeroom; servants not otherwise stationed remain in officer's quarters. The station bills omit no person on board.

Officers have stations according to rank; the executive officer takes the deck; the second lieutenant, or next in rank to the executive, has charge upon the forecastle; the next, upon the main deck in frigates, the starboard gangway in corvette-built ships; and so in rotation; the port gangway, the quarter-deck and mizzen-mast; the poop and signals; the junior watch officer being signal officer, unless some other officer is assigned to the duty by the commander. The navigating officer or master is at the conn, at the cables or anchors, according to circumstances. In hoisting out and in boats, the master superintends getting up purchases, clearing away the boats and hooking them on.

Midshipmen or master's mates who perform the duty of midshipmen, are stationed in the same manner, the oldest on the forecastle. The main-deck, berth-deck, sprit-room and holds are permanently in charge of young officers who superintend keeping them in order, maintain order there, and are responsible for their good condition.

Watch officer keep watch in rotation according to rank; at sea each taking a watch in turn; in port the tour of twenty-four hours duty is so divided as to be completed in three nights and two days, the officer having the watch from midnight to 4 A.M. gives to his predecessor upon watch relief to meals upon the ensuing day, and takes the watch from 8 P.M. to midnight on the night that follows; he takes the watch on the next morning at 8 A.M., continuing till 8 P.M., receiving the relief to meals for a length of time that is arranged by agreement. After keeping this "day's duty" he takes the watch from 4 A.M. to 8 A.M., when he is free from watch till his turn again comes around for the middle watch at midnight - that is considered to commence the tour of duty; the next in rank always relieves his immediate predecessor at midnight. When keeping watch by day's duties, officers having the relief may be called upon for boat duty during that day from 8 A.M. till 8 P.M. When keeping sea watch, that officer longest off watch, that is, the one having the next watch in anticipation, performs boat duty. The officer of the morning watch, if relieved at 8 A.M., must relieve to breakfast after he has had his own, therefore it is generally customary for him to remain on deck till half-past 8 o'clock. Young officers keeping watch in the same manner, the oldest in each watch taking charge upon the forecastle, the others doing duty upon the quarter-deck.

The ship's company is divided into the starboard and port watches equally, not only as regards numbers but also rates; each man in the starboard watch considering the next number to his own, that is, of the port watch, as his watch "partner," or alternate, with whom mutual relations subsist, the one taking charge of the hammock, watched clothes, scrubbed hammock, &c., when the other is absent or occupied by duty; when but one watch of hammocks is piped down to be occupied by both watches, partners "turn in and out." Watch numbers are assigned, commencing with the starboard watch, and giving to it all the odd numbers, and to the port watch the even numbers, beginning with the forecastlemen and passing in succession to foretopmen, maintopmen, mizzentopmen, afterguard, messenger boys, petty officers, idlers, marines and firemen and coalheavers. The first number of each part is that of the captain. Each part of the ship is divided into each watch, the second part or sub-division being in charge of the second-captain - usually a coxswain, who takes the first number of that part. Petty officers are equally divided, and each watch supplies men for the temporary duties of sweeper, top-keeper, chain-keeper, berth-deck cook, &c., every necessary station being filled in both watches, or being equally divided between two watches. Watch numbers often may be changed, but the number of an account upon the books of the paymaster remains the same therefore, in marking clothes, the men place upon them the paymaster's or "ship's number."

A "quarter watch" is one part of either watch from every part of the ship, excepting those excused by special order; the first part of the starboard watch is relieved by the second part of the port watch, or the second part of the starboard by the first part of port, the alternate parts of different watches reliving.

An anchor watch is a certain number of men from each part of the ship, relieved every two hours by the corresponding number from the other watch. There should be men enough to let go an anchor and veer chain, and supply a hand for the drift lead. Petty officers do not keep anchor watch.

All matters of duty are performed on board ship, and all orders are executed under the immediate attention of petty officers. It is their duty to direct the work of others, as a general rule, rather than to perform, always, manual labor. They direct sweepers but do not sweep, they superintend painters without taking a brush in hand; some of them direct the efforts of men at sheets and braces without pulling and hauling themselves; in all matters requiring their oversight, their duty is merely their oversight, their duty is to cause those under their orders to work and not do the work themselves.

Boatswain's mates pass and cause to be executed orders issued by officers, and they superintend all duty that is being carried under the general or special direction of officers. They are never, however, to assume the authority of an officer and act in his stead, or issue orders that are exclusively his province, their duty being to execute not to originate orders. They should be well acquainted with the forms established by usage for carrying on all matters of duty, as upon their intelligent executing of his orders and their direction of details, a junior officer is dependent for assistant in carrying out the instructions of his superiors.

"All hands " are called by the boatswain, or when no boatswain is attached to the vessel, or he is absent, by the chief boatswain's mate. He sounds with his call the pipe that calls the mates, each answering and joining him at once. In frigates, he stands upon the port side of the main-deck at the main-hatch, the mates in line forward of him, all facing inboard; and in vessels without a gun-deck, on the spar-deck abreast of the fore-hatch - at sea on the weather side of the deck, in port on the starboard side. The boatswain and mates then sound together a preparatory pipe with the call, and the boatswain alone cries in a loud tone of voice, "All hands," if after meals, or if for the performance of some requisite duty it is named, as "All hands reef topsails," "All hands bend," "furl," "loose," or "mend sails;" "All hands clear launch," "lighter," "cutter" or "boat;" All hands bring ship to anchor;" "All hands moor," "unmoor," "work" or "about" "ship;" "All hands up anchor;" "All hands cross" or "down topgallant and royal yards;" "All hands, or "All the starboard" or "port watch" "stand by hammocks," "scrubbed hammocks," "washed clothes;" "All hands to muster;" "All hands clear hawse," &c. The mates then repeat together the same cry. When the men are off the lower decks, the boatswain repeats them up to the officer of the deck; officers in charge of lower decks, or the master-at-arms, also report to the officer of the deck when the men have left these decks to go on deck. Except in cases of emergency the evolution is not commenced till this report has been made.

At "all hands" the executive officer takes charge of the deck, and all officers upon being called repair to stations. When the evolution is performed or the services of the entire ship's company are not required upon deck, the order is given to the boatswain to "pipe down." He calls the mates by the sound of his call, having first repaired to the proper place, on the main-deck or abreast of the fore-hatch or spar-deck, all give the preparatory pipe together, and then together that technically called the "pipe down," without using the voice.

The boatswain sets the watch at 8 P.M. On receiving the order, he pipes for his mates, and after they reply and join him, he and they together give the preparatory pipe, and he cries alone in a loud tone of voice, "All the starboard" or "port watch," the mates afterward repeating together the cry. The watch repairing on deck, all men stationed on lookout, at the wheel, lead, &c., are at once relieved, by orders of captains of different parts of the ship. When the men are up from below, and the lookout, wheel, &c., relieved, the boatswain reports "the watch up" to the officer of the deck, who directs him to "set it;" the preparatory pipe is given by him and the mates, he calls alone "All the watch," the mates together repeating the word after him.

When the watch below is called to relieve that upon deck, after it has been set at 8 P.M., the boatswain's mate or mates of the watch call it, giving the preparatory pipe with the call, and cry, "All the port (or starboard) watch;" the men of the watch below go upon deck, lookouts, wheel, &c., are relieved, by direction of the captains of the different parts of the ship; then the boatswain's mate reports to the officer of the deck that the watch is on deck, and receives the order to "relieve the watch;" he gives the preparatory pipe with the call, and cries "all the watch," after which the watch relieved can go below. The watch is mustered immediately after being relieved by the junior officers of the watch, and reported to the officer of the deck with the names of all delinquents. The names of absentees are called at one of the hatches by a boatswain's mate, by order of the officer of the deck, and if no answer is made search is made with a lantern by the corporal of the guard, or ship's corporal of the watch, till they are found.

Boatswain's mates are berthed near a hatch, that they may be readily called at night, and can promptly reach the deck.

There are a number of sounds made with the boatswain's call easily distinguished, each having a signification that renders use of the voice unnecessary - the pipe "down," "belay," "let go," "slack," "lower away," "light along," "veer," "heave around," that "for side-boys," at the side, for meals, for sweepers; that by the boatswain for mates, &c, &c.

The boatswain or a mate attends at the gangway, or "tends the side," when commissioned officers leave or come alongside the vessel. As the boat approaches the gangway, after the bow oars are laid in, he "pipes alongside;" and as the officer passes over the gangway a second pipe is sounded; on leaving the ship, as the officer passes over the gangway to the boat, and again after the boat has shoved off. The boatswain or boatswain's mate, according to the rank of the officer, stands forward of the gangway, near the ship's side, and forward of the side-boys, facing aft. When piping over, he takes off his hat. The side-boys stand on each side of the gangway in two lines - that forward facing aft and the one abaft facing forward, so that they face each other. They take off their hats while at the side.

If a boat is to be manned, a boatswain's mate gives the appropriate pipe with his call, and calls in a loud tone of voice, "Away, first cutters," or any other boat by style or name. When all the boats are required for service, the boatswain pipes for the boatswain's mates. All give the preparatory pipe, and the boatswain alone cries "Arm and away all boats" the mates repeating the cry together after him.

When a man is not at his station, an officer giving order to a boatswain's mate "to pass the word" for him, the latter calls out the name at a hatch on the spar or main deck, and the master-at-arms or ship's corporal repeats it upon the berth deck. On hearing his name, the man replies loudly, "halloa!" and at once goes to the boatswain's mate calling him. The "word" is never passed by a boatswain's mate upon the quarter-deck; a boatswain's mate always uses his call before passing any order, but not before calling the names of men.

Piping to meals is always "piping down;" therefore it is unnecessary to pipe down, if all hands are on deck, before piping to meals. A boatswain's mate is stationed on the forecastle in each gangway on the quarter deck, and on the main deck at all hands. In port there is one during the day at each gangway; and on the main deck at sea where most useful.

The master-at-arms has charge of all prisoners; is responsible that the cooks of the messes to which they belong supply them the food allowed; that they are cleanly in person, and properly clad; that they have no knife, weapon or arms; and that a man has no tobacco, no reading material, or writing materials, while in confinement, without permission from the commander. He makes report to the commander each morning at 8 o'clock of the prisoners under his charge, stating names, rate, date of confinement and offense. He permits no person to hold intercourse with prisoners by word or sign, without permission of the commander, and in his own presence or that of the corporal of the guard; he will release no prisoner except by order of the commander, or executive officer, or proper authority; he reports to the officer of the deck whenever he confines a person, and when one is released from confinement, stating by whose order it has been done; he permits no prisoner to leave the "brig" unless attended by a sentry or the corporal of the guard; he causes cooks of the prisoners' messes and messmates to wash clothes and scrub hammocks for them when it is necessary.

No. II (Published 8 APR 1865)


The master-at-arms supervises all punishments, keeps a correct record of them, and makes a report at stated periods, according to orders; he causes the food of men absent upon duty during meal time to be saved for them till their return by the cooks of the messes, and requires cooks to take from clotheslines and gantlines washed clothes and scrubbed hammocks of absent messmates, to be retained in his charge till their return; he distributes letters to the ship's company, and is responsible that they are correctly delivered; he has general charge of the berth deck, and of the general police of the ship; he maintains order upon the berth deck, superintends cleansing it, regulates the duties of cooks of messes, selects sweepers from them in succession, selects cooks from the names upon the mess-book, one for each mess, commencing after inspection on Monday forenoon and continuing till the same time on the ensuing Monday, petty officers, firemen, seamen and boys being excused, under orders of the officer in charge of the deck or the executive officer; he messes the crew, in accordance with general orders, and exercises a general superintendence over the messes, noting and reporting everything that is disorderly; he sends men on deck promptly when their presence is required there, keeps the starboard side of the deck clear of men during inspection and when in port, before the hammocks are piped down; he applies to the executive officer every morning before breakfast for orders regarding the dress of the crew for the date and arranges the hatch dress-board accordingly, or passes the word through the cooks to the messes while at breakfast; he has especial care of the boys, berths them together abaft the rest of the ship's company, and sees every evening, after all hands are piped down or the watch set, that they are in their hammocks, unless on watch; he requires them to remain in their hammocks when not on watch, and prevents them from rambling about the ship at night.

The master-at-arms musters the boys upon deck every morning before the breakfast hour, and ascertains by examination that they pay proper attention to cleanliness, reporting their condition to the officer of the deck; he also musters such of servants as the executive officer may direct, about the same time, with the same object, examines and reports to the officer of the deck; he sees that all lights, except standing lights required by general orders, are out upon the berth deck at 8 P.M., and ascertains at the same time, by personal inspection, that the galley fires are entirely extinguished, and reports accordingly to the officer of the deck; he also notifies officers as such times as the orders of the ship require, until after 10 o'clock attending the midshipmen of the watch, and sees all but standing lights in their apartments extinguished, and reports to the officer of the deck or to the midshipman of the watch; if permission is granted by the commanding officer for extension of time for lights up to ten o'clock, the master-at-arms should notify the officer of the expiration of that time, and report to the officer of the deck when the light is out. After ten o'clock the corporal of the guard or the ship's corporal of the watch sees such lights put out.

When a watch is kept on deck, as at sea, the master-at-arms calls at daylight all those of the ship's company who keep no watch at night, and are hence styled "idlers," see that they lash up their hammocks at once in readiness for going on deck when hammocks are piped up, and reports to the officer of the deck that they are up.

When hammocks cannot be taken on deck to be stowed in the nettings, on account of rain, stress of weather, or other cause, and they are "piped down" after all hands are called, the master-at-arms sees that those on the berth deck are snugly triced up to the beams, leaving the deck below as clear as circumstances permit. He has all fires, and lights not required by general order, extinguished at the beat to quarters for exercise with power or for action, and reports to the executive officer. Always at general quarters he supervises all lights, has lamps light-rooms to magazines and shell-rooms lighted, examines and trims them frequently while in use; he sees that lamps for lighting the magazines and shell-rooms are always trimmed, in readiness for use. The master-at-arms is the leading police petty officer of the vessel. He should always influence the crew to good behavior, maintain a rigid scrutiny into the conduct of every member of the ship's company as much as in his power, and make report to the executive officer of everything he observes tending to excite a suspicion of wrong-doing or intent; he should make himself acquainted with the disposition and character of the me, that he may know those who are reliable and honest, and those whose conduct may render them liable to suspicion as untrustworthy or vicious.

The master-at-arms inspects the bumboat on every occasion of its visit to the ship, examines it to ascertain that no article is brought that is prohibited by orders or regulation and to require that the articles sold are wholesome and not offered at a price too much in advance of market prices on shore; he instructs the ship's corporal accordingly, and while the bumboat remains alongside, he or a ship's corporal attends in her to maintain order and to prevent fraud in dealings.

Ship's corporals assist the master-at-arms in his duties and in his absence or illness, act in his stead. When the general store-room is closed for the day, and the holds closed for the night, the master-at-arms first inspects them to see that no fire or lights remain there.


The chief quartermaster has charge of the master's storeroom, is responsible that the stores and instruments are not removed without proper authority; he has charge of soap and candles drawn by requisition in the master's department for ship's use, and serves them only by order and according to the allowance prescribed by the executive officer, to ship's cook, for scrubbing paint-work, window sills, screen, boat's sails and awnings, etc., etc.; he keeps in order all flags, pendants and numbers, etc., pairs them when necessary, assisted by other quartermasters, and when so ordered makes new ones; he sees that the binnacle lamps and signal lamps and lanterns are properly trimmed every morning watch, by the quartermaster of the watch not on lookout or at the conn - that they are lighted at such times as general orders require, and that the signal lanterns are always ready for immediate use, that the binnacle lamps are lighted and put in the binnacles by quartermasters, and that the running lights are lighted by the quartermasters and turned over to be put in place - the masthead light to the captain of the forecastle, that for the starboard side to the captain of the maintop, and that for the port side to the captain of the foretop, and the mizzentop light to the captain of the mizzentop. The chief quartermaster takes the lookout at all hands, is stationed at signals at quarters, and when there are four quartermasters beside himself, he keeps no regular night watch; he superintends at making signals night and day.

A quartermaster is always present to weigh out provisions when they are being served out. When underway, one quartermaster is always at the conn and one on lookout; a seaman takes the weather wheel, and an ordinary seaman or landsman the lee wheel. When four men are required to steer the ship, both weather wheelsmen should be seamen. A quartermaster holds the glass when the master's mate or senior midshipman of the watch heaves the log every hour. At all hands a quartermaster give the soundings from each main chain when hand lead can be used. A quartermaster always attends at the lead line on the quarter and gets the soundings when getting a cast with the deep sea lead. Before getting the cast, the quartermaster arms the lad and gives it to a forecastleman sent aft for it.

At sea quartermasters keep regular watch; in port, when no regular watch is kept on deck of the ship's company, they divide the watches, each taking two hours, that the one having the watch from 2 till 4 A.M. being permitted to sleep in till 7 o'clock; a quartermaster is always on lookout night a day with a glass, he examines and reports to the officer of the deck the appearance of all sails or objects reported to be in sight when at sea, keeps a lookout for signals when sailing in company with other ships; and in port reports all boats approaching the ship, the officers in them if known, or their rank, to the officer of the deck before the boat reaches the ship; reports all signals to the officer of the deck, has answering pendant always bent-on ready for use if other ships are in company; he keeps a lookout for the time and sees that the bell is struck promptly at the time, or immediately after the senior officer; he keeps the ensign and pendant clear. Quartermasters dress ladders, and lash furniture in officer's apartments; they hoist the colors repairing to stations at the signal halliards when the call is beaten, and giving the jack to the captain of the forecastle if it is to be hoisted on the staff, round up pendant and see halliards clear; at the third roll of the drum they break stops to the pendant and haul down the one that had been afloat, and hoist or haul down the ensign. Quartermasters supply signals, glass, lantern and candles, lead and line, when boats are manned and armed for service. Chief quartermaster examines and measures lead and log lines, inspects, and when necessary, oils wheel ropes, under the direction of the master. When the jack is hoisted at the staff on the bowsprit a forecastleman lays out with it when the call is beaten, bends it on to the halliards and hoists when the other colors are hoisted at the third roll.


Captains of forecastle, captains of tops and captains of afterguard are especially responsible for the attention to general routine orders by those under their charge, and for the cleanliness and good order of their own parts of the ship outside, and on spar and main decks inboard. Forecastlemen have charge in square-rigged vessels from the knightheads on both sides of the deck as far aft as the fiferail to the foremast. Maintopmen have the starboard gangway from the fore fiferail to that of the mainmast, and foretopmen have the port gangway within the same limits; they clean all combings, gratings, ladders leading to the deck immediately below, as well as deck, rails, &c. The afterguard, when there is a poop extending to the mizzenmast, have both sides of the quarterdeck to the cabin bulkhead, and the mizzentopmen the poop; if the deck is flush, the afterguard takes the starboard side and the mizzentopmen the port side from the main fiferail to the taffrail. In vessels with a gundeck, the starboard watch have the spardeck and the port watch the maindeck, the afterguard taking the starboard side of the halfdeck, and the mizzentopmen the port side. When at sea the decks are cleared with the watch, the first part of the watch clearing the spardeck and the second part the main; the lower gundecks of line-of-battle-ships and berthdeck in sloops are kept in order by the cooks of the messes; the orlop deck of line-of-battle-ships is cleared by a detail of men from different parts of the ship. The wardroom country is cleared by the crew of the wardroom boat, the steerages by steerage boat's crew, the cabin by the gigmen; the cockpit in frigates by a detail of men from the crews of the larger boats. The inside of hatches below the top of the combings is in the charge of those clearing the decks below; abath the mainmast all combings and skylights are cleared by the carpenter's crew. When cleaning a deck all ladders leading to the deck next below are hauled up and cleaned. Captains of all parts of the ship see all the paintwork is thoroughly wiped off with paint-swabs after washing down.

A captain of forecastle must be present when provisions are being served out to see that a fair division is made in cutting up; all forecastlemen have charge of the forerigging, foretopsail gaft, foreyard and its studding sail booms, bowspirt head booms and lower booms; they bend and unbend bower cables; supply seamen to weather wheel, a seaman in the chains when "all hands" are not at stations; a lookout for starboard cathead, and one for foreyard, if required; the foresail, headsails, foretopsail, lower and foretopmast steeringsail, and fore storm-staysail are under their charge all the gear appertaining.

Foretopmen have all the rigging to mast and yards and sails on foremast above the top, except headsails and the foretopmast steeringsail; they veer foretopmast steering sail halliards, and tend short sheet in foretop; they have charge of lashings to spare spars in port chains and on booms in port gangway; keep lookout on topsail yard or crosstrees during the day, and at the port cathead at night. In sloops with a topgallant forecastle, the forecastlemen are charged with the care of it, and the fore and maintopmen clear the spardeck beneath it as well as in the gangways. Maintopmen have rigging to mainmast and yards above the top; they keep a lookout at masthead during the day and at night take the starboard gangway; have charge of lashings to spare spars in starboard chains and in starboard gangway on the booms; take drift lead in main chains, and supply ordinary seamen or landsmen at the lee wheel if required. The mizzentopmen have all rigging on mizzenmast and the yards above the top, and work the sails; they supply a lookout on port-quarter during the night, one at the life-buoy night and day. The afterguard have the mizzen rigging on both sides, maintopsail gaff, spanker-gag and boom and the cross-jack yard, furl spanker, main trysail and assist on mainyard; in addition to afterguard the gunner's mates, quarter-gunners, quartermaster's armorer, carpenter's mates, rated carpenters, and sailmaker's mate are mainyard men; gunner's mate, quartermaster, quarter-gunners, keep the rigging on the mainyard and the main-rigging in order. The afterguard take the port gangway lookout if there are no marines to take it, and the starboard quarter and life-buoy; they have charge of the starboard mizzen-chains, and the mizzentopmen the port. Fore and maintopmen have their own chains on both sides. At sea when under sail, a quarter-watch of topmen is stationed in each top, to tend studdingsail tacks and sheets, bear abaft and abreast breast backstays, loose and furl, set and take in light sails, &c., &c.; at night one man in each top is kept on lookout. At each half hour when the bell strikes at sea, all lookouts call out their stations in rotation, commencing with the "starboard cathead," "port cathead," "foretop," "starboard gangway," "port gangway," "maintop," "starboard quarter," "port quarter," and "mizzentop," follow.

The topssail halliards have always at sea, if the ship be under canvas, a topman stationed at each of them, who sees them laid down in the rack clear for running, and allows nothing to be put in the rack; men are stationed also at the halliards of light sails and studding sails, a quarter-gunner at maintack and bowline, and one at mainsheet and foretopmast-studdingsail tack and lower studdingsail out-haul; forecastlemen tend lower and foretopmast studdingsail halliards; topmen work their own light braces. A quartermaster is stationed at the lee maintopgallant brace in working ship. In sending up and down masts, topmen attend their own stays and backstays, going in other tops to light through nips, let go or put in seizings. In reefing captains of tops take the earrings, in furling they stow the bunt; when a captain of a top is aloft, he answers a hail from the deck, if he is not aloft the topkeeper answers. Forecastlemen attend foresheet and work and overhaul foretacks and sheets; a foretopman in forechains and a maintopman in mainchains assist in lighting along and overhauling tacks and sheets. Quarter gunners reeve main bowline. Captains of the different parts of the ship select sweepers in turn from the ordinary seamen and landsmen, one for each part of the ship for the upper decks, and one from the berth deck cooks for each side of that deck; in ships having a main deck, the port watch supplies sweepers in port for that deck, but at sea they are taken from the second part of the watch that is on deck, the first part supplying them to the spardeck. Sweepers scrub spitboxes while the decks are being cleaned, and clean them out every time the deck is swept down, taking them to the head for the purpose; they always sweep down the ladders leading to the deck above whenever they sweep the deck; after sweeping they do not push the dirt out the scuppers to blow back about the ship, but take it up into a bucket and carry it to the head; main or spardeck sweepers are called to sweep down by the pipe of the boatswain's mates, who, with the captains of the parts of the ship to which they belong, are responsible that they perform their duty properly. Spardeck sweepers keep windsails trimmed during the day.

Accommodation ladders and gangways are cleaned by the side-boys; marines clear the sentry-boards. When decks are holystoned, all ladders, gratings, combings are holystoned, and all wood-work that is kept bright; ladders are scrubbed with canvas and sand to cleanse them, and are never scraped except to remove stains of paint or tar.

No. III (Published 22 APR 1865)

Coxswains are generally watched as second captains; they are responsible for the good order of their boats, and that everything belonging to them is in order, reporting deficiencies or injuries to the officer of the deck as soon as discovered. Boat's crews are selected equally from each watch, with a proper allowance of rates, and no more than a due proportion in one boat from any part of the ship; boatkeepers prevent their boat from coming into contact with the ship or other boat; when she is not manned, haul to booms and alongside or drop astern; keep fenders out, salute all officers coming along side, leaving the ship or passing near; wipe off the boat outside after she is run up, and clean her out in the morning watch before she is lowered. The crew taking boatkeeping in rotation by thwarts for twenty-four hours, commencing at 8 A.M.; in case of absence of the coxswain the starboard-after-oarsman performs the duty; in making up boat crews, men for two extra thwarts are selected as supernumeraries to supply vacancies. In pulling, the starboard-after-oarsman gives the stroke, each man watches the oar abaft his own, making his own conform to its motion. When the boat is called away, boatkeepers prepare her for lowering, or, if she is down, haul her to the gangway; a boatswain's mate attends to clearing her away at the davits, and when he sees the stoppers clear, the plug in and falls laid down clear for running, with a hand at each cleat, he reports to the officer of the deck that is she is ready; when ordered "lower away," he signifies it with his call, and she is lowered squarely into the watcher, the falls unhooked, rounded up and neatly stopped to the davits; the boat is hauled to the gangway, and the crew take their thwarts on entering; at the order to "get up oars" they are raised, excepting bow and stroke oars, the looms resting on the bottom of the boat, the blades feathered fore and aft; at the order "shove off" the bow-oarsmen shoves the boat's bow off from the ship, and the stroke oarsmen forces her head with boathooks, the coxswain sheering her from the ship with the rudder that the oars may fall clear; bow and stroke oars are got up together, and at the order "let fall" all stroke the water together with the blade vertical that it may not be split by the blow; the stroke is given as long as the length of the oar and the distance between the thwarts allow, the loom of the oar is pressed well down toward the knees on lifting, and the oar feathered between strokes with the blade level with the gunwale, and the blade vertical when dipped into the water; at the order "oars," after one stroke the oars are lifted from the water, and the pressure continued upon the loom to retain them in that position, with the blade feathered and level with the gunwale. On nearing a landing or ship, at the order "in bows," the bow oars are tossed together after one stroke and laid in the boat, or trailed, the oarsman on the side of the landing rising and holding his boathook upright prepares to shove the bows of the boat clear; at the order "way enough," after one stroke the oarsman throws up his arm and gives the word "toss," the oars are lifted with the upper movement of the stroke are laid quietly within the boat upon the thwarts clear of the gunwale, the inside stroke oarsman using the boathook to check the boat's way or haul her alongside; the long oars of single banked boats, and those of double banked boats when awnings are used, have trailing lines, and are not got up before shoving off; but at the order "get out oars," "give way," "trail," the stroke oarsman indicates the time for the movement; at the order "trail," the oarsmen take one stroke, and on the dip of the oar at the signal or word from the stroke oarsman the loom is lifted to clear the oar of the rowlock, and it swings alongside. Oars are preserved by leathering them in the wake of the rowlock and by putting one or two strips of sheet copper around the blade near the end. Each oarsman tends fenders and awning stops at his thwart, being careful to take in the fender when shoving off that the lainard does not get in rowlock and chafe off, and to throw them out at the order "toss," or "trail," before getting alongside. When in port boats are run up at sunset, and lowered together when the colors are hoisted. Before running up, the boatkeepers haul under the davits, boat's crews overhaul down the falls; men from the part of the ship at which she hoists, lead alongside and snatch the falls in leading blocks; the falls are manned, men in the boat hook on, keeping the hand under the block to prevent unhooking, the slack of the falls hauled in , and the falls married together; the order given "haul taut," "walk away," the men in the boat reeving stoppers and hauling through the slack as the boat rises, and hanging her by turns around davit head while the fall is being belayed; a boatswain's mate attends and pipes belay when the boat is up. The plug is alway kept out when a boat is hanging at the davits. The gig's crew are excused from working in port.

The "jack of the dust," - a landsman selected to assist the paymaster's steward - prepares provisions for serving out; has barrels opened, pickles drawn off, fresh beef cut up upon a tarpaulin; in frigates, upon the main deck on starboard side abreast of fore hatch; in sloops, upon port side of port gangway near the fore hatch; he gets up scales and weights, spreads the tarpaulin, keeps the latter clean, fills bread bags, and generally assists the steward in his duties; he is excused from day watch. When berth deck cooks do not whip up the provisions for serving out, a part of the watch takes it; all parts of the ship doing that duty, in rotations day about. Salt provisions are served out at 1 o'clock P.M. every day in frigates under the supervision of the master's mate of the main deck, and in sloops under that of the officer in charge of the berth deck; fresh provisions are served at 7 o'clock A.M., and given at once, tallied with the number of the mess, by its cooks to the ship's cook for the coppers; the allowances of salt beef and pork is taken by the cook of each mess when drawn to the forward pump, properly cleansed and scraped, tallied with the number of the mess, and placed in the harness cask or steep tub, from which the ship's cook takes it for the coppers; other articles of the ration are given to the cooks of the messes, except beans and rice, which the ship's cook takes from the paymaster's steward when the proper time arrives for putting them in the coppers for cooking. Bread is served out once in three days, and is kept in a bag supplied to each mess for the purpose. Small stores are served out upon the berth deck upon monthly requisitions; all parts of the ration are served "at the block" on the main or spar decks. The tallies secured by the cooks to meat and "duff" are made of wood; "duff" must be made in time to be given to the ship's cook when wanted for the coppers. The ship's cook keeps steep tub clean, the "jack of the dust" the harness cask; for the cleanliness of the latter, the paymaster's steward is responsible. "Jemmy Ducks" - a landsman so styled - is selected to take charge of all animals and poultry laid in as sea stores by officer's messes; he gives them food and water, keeps the deck clean during the day about the coops and pens, and assists in cleaning coops during morning watch; he is excused from day watch. Each berth deck mess is supplied with a chest that has receptacles for the mess allowance of tea and sugar, and sufficient room for stowing pots, pans and remnants of cooked food; no uncooked meat is allowed in chests, nor are vegetables to be kept upon berth deck or in the hold; each chest is made secure with a padlock, the key to which is kept by the cook for the time being. Vegetables belonging to officers' messes are kept under charge of the sentry on the forward part of main deck or under the port side of the topgallant forecastle, or upon the stern netting; those belonging to the crew are kept under the boomcover on the booms, hung in bags or nets to the outside (not within) the boom boats. If there is a large quantity of fresh beef on board that is not served out, it is hung under the mainstay covered with tarpaulins. Cooks of messes are assembled to draw provisions by the air of "Yankee Doodle" with drum and fife; the paymaster's steward names the weight or quantity as each mess is called by its number, and the petty officers present adjust weights or measure accordingly. Tea and sugar are served out on the 1st and 15th of each month. The crew is messed by watches, and when possible those belonging to the same part of the ship together; boys distributed where they will be under the eye of petty officers, from twelve to eighteen persons in each mess. The cooks keep the deck in order, clamping, scrubbing or holystoning; on Friday morning it is whitewashed; Saturday morning if in port, or in the forenoon if at sea, it is holystoned. For inspection the deck is lighted up, all men but cooks and sick sent on deck, the mess chests opened, pots and pans arranged, and each cook stands beside his chest.

The cooper opens and closes barrels when provisions are served out, coopers barrels when provisions are overhauled or received, and when watering ship with the boats he goes in the launch to bung up the gang-casks; he is excused from day watch. Assisted by quarter-gunners, and under orders of the gunner, the gunner's mate has charge of all ordnance stores; he takes charge of one magazine in action if the ship has two, superintends all work in gunner's department and assists him in his duties; has general superintendence of battery and arms, sees that everything appertaining to them are kept in order, and reports to the gunner all defects and deficiencies,and, in the absence of the gunner, assumes his duties. He is stationed at the capstan in getting the anchor, and keeps the turns of the messenger from riding with his heaver; gets up, passes and dips messenger; he passes its seizing and sticks in gluts; he works on main rigging, mainstay, mainyard, has charge of the mainstaysail when bent, and, under orders of the boatswain, has charge of lashings to sheet anchor and all anchor buoys, catches buoy when heaving up, streams it on letting go anchor, or instructs a quarter-gunner regarding it; he burns all night signals that are not made with lanterns, stands by sheet-anchor, bends and unbends sheet-cables, bends all buoy ropes, unbends them and stows them in the hold when dry, attends maintack and sheet, mainstormstaysheet, seizes lashings to sheet and spar anchors, cleans guns, gun-carriages and small arms, loads the latter when ordered, stops up spare breechings, quoins and trucks, is in charge with care of lifebuoys; he keeps no night watch when the vessel is allowed two quarter-gunners; he has charge, under the gunner's orders, of all equipments of boat gun, and supplies them when the boat is being fitted out; he examines battery at 8 P.M., at sea, with the gunner, sees everything secure and in place. A quarter-gunner is stationed in each gun division. He springs the rattle for boarders, serves arms and supplies from supply and reserve boxes, collects ammunition to throw overboard, if so ordered, when an alarm of fire is given, and cleans the battery. THe quarter-gunner of the watch examines the battery every hour, or according to orders; at sea sees everything is secure and in place, and makes report to the officer of the deck. Quarter-gunners work on mainyard, rigging and stay. At all hands are stationed at main tack and sheet, or mainyard, at buoy, capstan, at mast, or yard rope; they get whip or yard for mainyard tackle; when mainsail is set attend to tack and sheet, and reeve mainbowline, get up main jeer blocks, and reeve jeer falls, belay and attend cat and fish falls, hook main clue jiggers, attend topsails braces at reefing, and they assist the gunner's mate in work upon mainyard, rigging or stay, and in all his general duties.

The petty officers who are excused from night watch, and therefore watched as idlers, are the master-at-arms, yeoman, paymaster's steward, surgeon's steward, cabin and wardroom stewards and cooks, the captain of the hold; and at times the chief boatswain's mate, chief quartermaster, gunner's mate, sailmaker's mate are excused from night watch, except in small vessels, but they are not watched as idlers. Wardroom and steerage servants are watched in the afterguard and are excused from watch on deck if deemed expedient by the executive officer; the officer of the deck calls upon deck all excused from night watch if he requires their services to perform any duty, when he wished them to assist the watch upon deck, and it is deemed advisable not to call all hands. The cabin boy is an idler.

No. IV (Published 29 APR 1865)

The captain of the hold is an idler, is berthed near a hatch, is stationed in the hold at all times; he is responsible, in absence of an officer in charge, for the security, good stowage and cleanliness of holds and tiers, that tanks are clean, and that no dirt gets into them, that canvas is put under manhole plates to prevent water washing out when ship rolls, if necessary, that provisions are so stowed that but little breaking out is necessary to supply the allowance from day to day, and that such has as been longest on board may be sent up first for serving out; he serves out wood and water according to allowance, has provisions broken out in readiness to go up for serving at one o'clock P.M., keeps a record of stowage of holds and tiers, and of water used from tanks, keep the ship in proper trim and on even keel, allows no naked light in hold, permits no one in the hold without proper authority; he has breakage at hatches, stows in forehatch rosin, pitch, tar, lime, if there are no lockers for them stows boat's grapnels, anchors and cables, launch's chain, holystones, wash-deck buckets and scrub brooms, forge and bellows in fore hold, and all rigging, chafing gear &c, in main hold; he keeps a passage always clear to wing cocks and the wings as clear as possible, keeps cables clear in the tiers for veering, stows towropes, hawsers, clear hawse gear, pendant tackles, &c., clear for sending up, keeps everything clear of shotlockers, and reports to the master-at-arms before closing the holds that he may examin them to guard against danger from fire, closes holds for the night at sunset, and turns in the keys to the executive officer, and does not again open them till daylight without orders from proper authority. One or more holders are allowed to assist captain of the hold, who are excused from other duty.

A "lamplighter" is selected who trims all standing lamps on the lower decks, and keeps them clean, lights them at dark and puts them out in the morning at daylight; he is under the especial orders of the master-at-arms.

The carpenter's mate, in absence of the carpenter, acts in his stead; he sounds the pump-well at sunset, at 8 P.M., daylight, and 8 A.M., and reports to the carpenter; and he or one of the rated carpenters, every two hours during the night at sea reporting to the officer of the deck; he ships and swifters-in capstan bars before using the capstan, he assists in covering hatches to berth decks at quarters, sees that axes are in place, supplies tools, plugs, load, and boards covered with felt for stopping shotholes, canvas trowsers, bag of nails and hammer, and hose pipe at quarters; superintends leading out hose and plugging up scuppers in case of an alarm of fire, he puts up the bench at the commencement of working hours after breakfast, takes it down and stows it away half an hour before supper-hour; cleans all combings and skylights abaft the mainmast on spar and main decks, washes the ship around after the decks are washed down, cleansing all dirt and sand that may lodge under the scuppers and on the ship's side or under chutes; rated carpenters assist the carpenter's mate in all his general duties.

The yeoman has charge of all ship's stores in the boatswain's, gunner's, carpenter's and sailmaker's departments that have not been expended by proper authority, and he retains acquisitions for expenditures as a voucher releasing him from responsibility till his returns are made and approved; he makes weekly, monthly and quarterly returns of expenditures to the commander; he is charged with the care of all articles belonging to the ship stowed in the storeroom by order of the executive officer, and issues nothing from the storeroom until he has a requisition signed by or an order from the executive officer. Tools and articles that are used but occasionally are not expended, unless, lost, but are issued for use, and returned to the storeroom to be kept there when not in use, also when worn out, that they may be examined and disposed of by survey; articles that are expended as lost must be reported by the yeoman to the officer of the deck that the fact may be noted in the ship's logs. The yeoman assumes a pecuniary responsibility on accepting his charge, but in lieu of bonds, a part of his pay is retained by the Government, and he is not discharged till his final returns are examined and found to be correct; consequently he must has some written voucher for all expenditures; a copy of all surveys by which articles are condemned and removed from his charge is supplied to him to be filed with his papers. He may be rated, or appointed by the commander; he never allows a naked light in the storeroom, allows none of the crew to enter it, or remain there, without proper authority; except in cases of emergency, none but petty officers are sent there, the sentry at the hatch stopping every person not passed by the master-at-arms, ship's corporal or the corporal of the guard; he is responsible for the cleanliness and good order of the storeroom and paintroom, that stores are conveniently stowed and are not suffered to become injured from want of attention, and that no wick-yarn or refuse matter that could originate fire by spontaneous combustion is allowed to be put in the paintroom, that all oils, spirits of turpentine, lacker, varnish, etc., are put, as soon as received, into the banks prepared for them, or are kept in no other than metallic vessels; that no light is on any account taken into the paintroom. The yeoman is an idler stationed always in the storeroom except at quarters, when he assists at the shellroom; the painter, and, if necessary, one or more men assist him in his duties; the storeroom is cleaned by them or men detailed from different parts of the ship to assist them; the sailmaker's mate and jack-of-the-dust clean that part of the fore passage near the sailroom and breadroom doors, or all of it; all spare articles supplied to the ship are not kept at the battery or required to be kept on deck are stowed in the storeroom for security; the necessary articles for fitting out boats for service are kept there, placed together in the boat boxes or bags ready for instant use. The storeroom is kept open from the time of calling all hands in the morning or from daylight till 4 P.M., excepting at meals, but whenever it is left vacant, all lights are to be securely extinguished; before closing for the night the yeoman informs the master-at-arms, and the doors are not closed until the latter has made examination and ascertained that there are no unextinguished lights or fire there; when it is closed for the night the yeoman reports to the executive officer, and turns in the keys to his charge, and it is not opened at unusual hours except by the order of the executive officer.

A sentry is posted on the sentry-boards at each gangway, and on the forecastle or bowspirit from the knightheads outboard. They prevent boats or persons from leaving the vessel without proper authority; prevent men from congregating about gangways or ladders on the ship's side, or unnecessarily on the forecastle and in the head; prevent shore boats coming alongside without permission from the officer of the deck; and prevent all disorderly conduct in the vicinity of their posts; they report any infraction of orders and all boats approaching the ship to the corporal of the guard, who makes report to the officer of the deck; the sentry on the forecastle allows no shore boat to come under bows, and prevents all persons from leaving the ship from that part except boats' crews, by the swinging booms when boats are called away. These sentries hail all boats seen near the ship at night, and call out the reply to the quartermaster of the watch. THey are posted with musket and fixed bayonet, and salute all officers passing over the gangway or near their posts, according to rank. Sentries with side arms only are posted at the scuttle-butt, to prevent water from being wasted or taken from it without orders; on main deck or starboard side, in charge of provisions, to retain them within the precincts of the brig, and to prevent communication with them, also to take charge of provisions placed there for safe keeping, at the galley to prevent none but galley cooks, officers and stewards, and the ship's cook and his assistant, the master-at-arms, or ship's corporal to take fire from the galley; one in fore-passage, at the hatch, to prevent any but petty officers or those passed down by the master-at-arms, ship's corporal, or corporal of the guard, from passing down the hatch; to prevent any one from using naked lights in the passage or the rooms adjoining; in the cock-pit of frigates, to prevent the opening of the spirit-room or store-room without proper authority, to prevent the use of naked lights in the store-rooms, and in the officers' rooms when the officers or their servants are not present. In sloops-of-war, when the galley is on the berth deck, one sentry only is posted at the galley and fore-passage hatch; and if the ship has a top-gallant forecastle, the sentry at the scuttle-butt is also in charge of the prisoners, the bring being under the port side of the forecastle. He also is charged with the care of the smoking lantern, hung during smoking hours under the forecastle for the use of the crew. On the main decks of frigates this lantern is hung in the starboard gangway near the forehatch, and is in charge of the sentry of the galley. All sentries may have special orders; but whenever posted they are to maintain order and to prevent infractions of the orders of the ship. An orderly is posted at the cabin entrance to carry orders and messages for the commander, and prevent improper persons entering the cabin. Three or four marines are selected for this service, and are excused from other posts; they take their post for four hours, sentries for two hours. Sentries posted at the gangway and on forecastle pass the call "all's well" every half hour after the stroke of the bell, first the starboard gangway, then forecastle and port gangway. A quarter-deck guard is kept on deck, in port, from 9 A.M. till 3 1/2 P.M., and are allowed to sit upon the temporary benches of boards or the mast-fishes on the port side of the quarter-deck, having muskets in portable racks abath the capstan or mizzen-mast. Gangway and forecastle sentries are taken off post as soon as the anchor is aweigh when getting underway, and posted as soon as the anchor is down on coming to.

In port the quarter-deck, the starboard gangway as far forward as the foremast on the spar-deck, the half-deck, the port side of the main-deck, and the starboard side of the berth-deck, are kept clear of the crew. At sea the after part of the watch remains on the lee side of the quarter-deck. On leaving or entering port, at sea when in company with other vessels, the crew is not permitted to stand near ports, to look out of them, nor near the ship's side, nor are they allowed to go upon the poop or topgallant forecastle unless stationed there, or to crowd unnecessarily in the head. When in port, the topgallant forecastle, the poop and the ports are kept clear of men. No one is permitted in the chains or tops except on duty, and by permission; neither do men go aloft without orders or permission; and if the services of more than one man is required, all lay aloft together at the order. Topkeepers clear in, and after rain, swab out the tops and lay down the rigging there snugly, during the morning watch. After loosing sails or performing other duty aloft, every one lays down when piped down after work is done. Chainkeepers wash out and sweep out the chains every morning. Nothing is kept in them except what is put in the chests, and rigging-stoppers that are becketed against the ship's side with covers of painted canvas over them. Nothing is thrown out of the ports or over the rain, everything to be thrown overboard being taken to the head for that purpose. Rigging is flemished down upon deck, in port; at sea, lee braces and foremainsheets are laid down in French fakes, with running lights underneath, and other rigging in round coils, clear for running. Hatch tarpaulins are kept upon battens, for the spar-deck under the stern of the launch, for main, or lower gun-decks between the beams; and hatch battens are becketed up along the combings to the hatches. A set of tarpaulins for covering the deck, to protect it from being soiled or stained when dirty work is being done, and hatch mats are stowed in the main hold.

No. V (Published 6 MAY 1865)

General inspection by the officer in command takes place once in each week. On such occasion, every part of the ship except magazines and shell-rooms is exposed and made ready for inspection. It may take place while the officers and crew are at quarters, or after they are assembled for muster; if at quarters, the officers give the usual salute, and the men take off their hats as the officer in command passes then. He is attended by the executive officer and his own aides, and at each part of the ship under the especial charge of officers by that officer, during the inspection of deck &c., under his charge. The marine guard present arms when inspected. Daily inspections, not at quarter or muster, are made by the executive with or unattended by the officer in command. Only the parts of the ship usually kept clean are then visited. At the first general muster after the vessel has been put in commission, the mane of every officer who has reported for duty, and of every petty officer, man and boy, belonging to her, is called, and rank or rate is specified. All hands having been called to muster, and the officers informed by a messenger from the officer of the deck of the fact, the officers assemble upon the starboard or weather side of the quarter-deck, the petty officers in line the starboard or weather gangway, those of the crew of other rates upon the port or lee side of the quarter-deck, the marine guard in the opposite gangway to the petty officers. As the name of each petty officer is called by the paymaster, or the paymaster's clerk, he answers, giving the customary salute. Those of the crew upon the quarter-deck, after answering their names, pass in succession abath the capstan to the opposite side of the quarter-deck, and forward upon that side, taking off their hats and keeping them off till forward of the main-mast. After the names of all persons on the roll have been called, the paymaster reports to the executive officer, and the latter to the officer in command, all absentees not accounted for being named. The medical officer answers for the "sick;" the officer of the watch for all men on duty on deck, stating the station they occupy; the chief engineer for those on duty in the engine or fire-room; and the executive officer for those in confinement, absent upon duty, or with leave.

When the act of Congress for the better government of the Navy, known as the "Articles of War," are read, the petty officers assemble with the rest of the ship's company. The marines are drawn up across the forward part of the quarter-deck, and all prisoners except those under sentence of court-martial are brought up under charge of the corporal of the guard and master-at-arms, and placed upon the quarter-deck, on the same side with the officers immediately abaft the marines. While the law is being read by the executive officer, every person except the marines remains with head uncovered. When a general order of the Honorable Secretary of the Navy is read, all hands assemble upon the quarter-deck. First and second-class firemen are classed with petty officers.

When serving provisions, if the petty officers at the block express dissatisfaction with that got up to be served out, the officer serving the provisions directs a quantity of it to be taken to the mast and a report made to the officer of the deck, who refers the matter to the executive officer. If the article is of bad quality or injured, the latter directs other provisions of the same kind to be got up and issued in its stead, and that appearing to be bad, surveyed by the officers upon the quarterly board of survey, and disposed of in accordance with their recommendation, if it meets the approval of the commander.

The ration is an allowance supplied for the express purpose of furnishing sustenance and maintaining health and comfort; if not required for the accomplishment of such end it must not be drawn. A commutation may be paid in money in lieu of it, or of parts of it that cannot be obtained for issue. A man is not allowed to consume the supplies of the vessel without the intended adequate advantage to himself, by drawing what he does not wish to use and throwing it away or wasting it; nor can he sell it except by permission, to procure other articles of food contributing to his comfort. As, in some cases, the food of all is cooked together, he may not withhold his allowance and destroy it; but it is to be cooked for the common good.

Routine is system, regularity and uniformity. It is comprehensive, compels thoroughness, and promotes efficiency; it supplies both the rule for guidance and the mode of procedure, and unites general rules with the minuteness of detail from usage. Tables of routine are prepared to assist in the performance of the executive duties, and for the guidance of watch officers. The one is "general" and carried out upon the special order of the executive officer; the other is "daily" and referring to the ordinary current duties of the ship. Both are established by order, or with the approval of the officer in command, must vary with different classes of vessels, and are carried out subject only to such modifications as he may deem requisite. A general routine may be arranged for each day, as follows: - On Monday, in morning watch scrub mess-clothes, capstan bars, and, if in port, clothes of all hands: at 9:30 A.M., exercise the crew at general quarters. On Tuesday, in morning watch scrub decks, ladders, gratings and combings with sand, also banners and sponge staves and handspikes that are not stained or painted; at 1 P.M., air bedding; at 7 P.M., sweep galley funnel. On Wednesday, in the morning watch, scrub clothes of all hands if in port; scrub boats' sails and awnings if necessary. On Thursday, in morning watch scrub decks, ladders, combings, gratings with sand, and boats' oars and spars; an hour before sunset scrape spars and booms, when necessary. On Friday, in morning watch, scrub clothes of all hands if in port, scrub sponge caps, scrub windsails; in forenoon whitewash berth deck, in afternoon scrape and oil the iron works at the guns; at 7 P.M., sweep the galley funnel. On Saturday, in the morning watch, holystone all decks, ladders, hatches, combings, gratings, running in and removing all guns, scrub paint work with salt water, canvas and sand, also lower masts, steps and mastheads, scrub halliard racks and rounds of jacob's ladders. On Sunday, scrub decks without sand in morning watch; at 10 A.M., general muster and inspection. Get ladders upon deck when cleaning; on board steam vessels do not scrub combings or gratings to engine room hatches that are over engines. Avoid all duty that is not necessary on Saturday afternoon, that the crew inport and the watch below when at sea may overhaul their clothing, and on Sunday, after inspection and muster, that the crew may have opportunity for rest and partial relaxation. Get up and overhaul the shot in the shot-locker once every three months. On the 1st and 15th of each month sling clean hammocks; scrub hammocks on the first Tuesday after slinging. On the first Thursday of each second blankets with fresh water. Pump the ship out in port, morning and evening, at sea once in every watch; at sea, the watch scrub clothes every morning excepting Saturday and Sunday, and on Sunday the berth deck is holystoned after breakfast. Once in each quarter have cables roused up and overhauled, all pins and shackle bolts knocked out and leaded before being replaced. On the 1st and 3d Saturdays of each month grease hide rope, on the 2d and 4th Thursdays scrape spars and booms. During each quarter expend the regulation allowance of ammunition at target practice with great guns, muskets and pistols; make bimensal returns of deaths, desertions, punishments; on first day of every quarter forward advance returns, muster rolls and descriptive list, and shipping articles.

The daily routine for port may be as follows: - At daylight beat off, call all hands and pipe up the hammocks, allowing ten minutes for lashing and stowing; sweep down the decks and make other necessary preparations, and execute morning orders; pump out the ship before drying down the decks; lower boats together at 7:30; roll back hammock cloths in good weather; square yards and haul rigging taut; wash the ship around and clean the copper. At 8 A.M., go to breakfast; at 8:40 turn the hands to, sweep down decks, flemish down the rigging, clean brightwork; at 9 inspect crew, arms and the brightness of the guns at quarters; exercise one division at the great guns; working gangs and mechanics commence work according to orders; boats leave the ship according to order; at 11:30 clear up and sweep down the decks, at 12, pipe to dinner. At 1 P.M., turn all hands to, and sweep down the decks, mechanics and working gangs resuming work; exercise one division at small arms and one at swords; at 4:30 clear up decks and sweep down; at 5 pipe to supper; at 5:30 turn the hands to and sweep down; pump ship out. At half an hour before sunset, beat to quarters for inspection. At sunset hoist boats, and on Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday get up clothes lines; on Friday get up holystones and sand; before dark pipe down the hammocks. At 7:45 when the sun's declination and the altitude are of the same name, and at 8:45, when they are different, beat off; pipe down immediately afterwards.

The daily routine at sea may be as follows: - Morning watch: Lay up rigging, at daylight send lookout to masthead and call warrant officers; swab down decks, scrub clothes except on Saturday and Sundays; clean decks according to morning orders; pump out the ship; at 7 call all hands and pipe up hammocks, allowing ten minutes for lashing and stowing; get sheets home and sails taut up; clean brightwork; in fine weather roll back the hammock cloths; At 8 o'clock pipe to breakfast, each watch for half an hour.

Forenoon watch: at two bells turn the hands to, sweep down the decks, inspects the4 crew, arms, &c., at quarters; exercise one division at great guns; mechanics and working gang commence work according to orders; at seven bells pipe down washed clothes, clear up and sweep down decks, and call the master; at 12 o'clock pipe to dinner, each watch for half an hour.

Afternoon watch: at two bells turn the hands to and sweep down; mechanics resume work; exercise one division at small arms, and one division at swords; at seven bells clear up the decks and sweep down; at 4 o'clock pipe to supper, each watch for half an hour.

Dog watches: at two bells turn the hands to, sweep down decks; pump out the ship; at half an hour before sunset inspect crew at quarters; pipe down watch of hammocks; at dusk station deck lookouts; at 8 P.M., set the watch.

No. VI (Published 13 MAY 1865)

The executive officer is the senior line officer attached to the vessel next in rank to the officer in command; in cases of his illness or absence, his duties are performed by the next in rank, who is informed by the executive officer on leaving the ship of all unexecuted orders that require attention, the number of prisoners, and any intelligence that it is requisite should be imparted. The executive officer is directly responsible only to the commander for his official conduct; his authority is contemplated in all orders issued by the officer in command to other officers, and it is their duty to report their instructions to him. In case of necessity he may interpose his authority in opposition to that of the officer of the deck, or may take charge of the deck, first relieving the officer in charge, reporting to the commander; he establishes a uniform system for carrying on duty, revises and corrects watch, quarter and station bills, and keeps a correct copy where the crew may refer to them; selects men for a life-boat's crew and those for lowering her, from each watch; he informs the officer of the deck of all duty to be performed upon deck, or that may require the services of the crew; he examines differences, settle claims, in the absence of the officer in command; may suspend an officer from duty for cause, or confine any of the crew, reporting personally when opportunity offers, but he cannot release any one suspended or confined, without orders from the commander; he grants permission for temporary absence, and no person can leave the vessel without his permission or knowledge; he directs all duty; he examines magazines and shell rooms frequently, acquaints himself with every circumstance connected with the condition of the vessel, and reports all defects to the commander; he regulates the expenditure of ship's stores, allows nothing to be removed from the store-room without his order and upon his requisition; guards against loss or injury to articles of the ship's outfit, requiring officers and others in charge of them to account strictly. When at sea, he inspects at 8 P.M., that the battery and small arms are ready for use; if on soundings, that ground tackle is ready; if at anchor, that cables are ready for receiving or slipping; that anchors are ready and that every part of the ship is in readiness for any emergency, requiring officers of different departments to report to him, and he reports to the commander accordingly. He always pipes down after the object for which all hands have been called is accomplished, for employing the men otherwise; he takes the deck at all hands, also at quarters, and takes command, when they are called, of boarders; he arranges and supervise drill and exercise; he retains in his possession the keys of holds, spiritrooms, breadrooms, general storeroom when closed, and regulates the time for opening them; he keeps sheet cables bent when at anchor; he permits magazines or shell rooms to be opened only in the presence of an officer, and takes the requisite precautions against danger from fire; he inspects the ship and keeps her in order; he permits air ports to be taken out when he thinks it expedient, causing the officer of the deck to be informed he regulates the issue of firewood; he requires all offenses to be brought to him for examination, through the officer of the deck; he permits no punishment to be inflicted without his knowledge, and the special or general order of the commander; he keeps a conduct book of the crew; he causes a correct record of punishments and offenses to be kept; he permits no boats to be sent from the ship at meal hours, and requires absent boats to return before meals, unless unavoidably detained by duty; he will allow no lacker, varnish, spirits of turpentine or other inflammable material to be kept on board except in the proper metallic vessels in the storerooms; he arranges for filling up with water by condensation or otherwise; he gives general or especial orders regarding every matter that may affect the good condition and efficiency of the vessel, and exercises supervision over all matters of duty. He supplies the officer of the deck with explicit written orders concerning duty to be performed in the morning watch.

The office of the deck receives especial orders from the commander for his guidance; he is entrusted with the care of the vessel, consequently his orders are respected, his authority being inferior only to that of the commander and executive officer. He never leaves the deck unless properly relived, he is required to be vigilant and alert, obeying orders promptly, and requiring promptness and diligence on the part of all under his orders; he carries on duty without confusion, and avoids all unnecessary noise. When taking the deck he informs himself of the bearings of all vessels in sight, of prominent points of land or other objects, soundings if any, of boats alongside the vessel or absent from her; on being relived is is careful to pass all unexecuted orders, to give all useful information regarding the condition and position of the vessel and all object in sight; he reports to the commander all signals of the flag or senior officer's ship, all land lights, vessels or other objects made, and every occurrence of sufficient moment that transpires; he maintains order throughout the vessel, represses all disorderly conduct, and reports promptly to the commander and executive officer; he causes all duty to be performed in a prompt and seamanlike manner, prohibits and avoids all slovenly or careless manner of executing orders, repeating the mater of duty if practicable till it is done properly; he regulates sail and the speed of the vessel in accordance with orders; he shortens sail always before a squall reaches the ship; he permits no unauthorized lights during the night in any part of the vessel, and is particular that all lights are extinguished and reported out, in accordance with general orders.

He takes care that the courses are given distinctly and steered correctly, that the log slate is properly marked; he causes the watch to be mustered when reported up and as often afterwards as he deems necessary to ensure their presence; he reports all offenses to the executive officer; he alters the vessel's course only to avoid danger or collision, carefully regarding the regulation concerning passing vessels; he permits no boats to come alongside or to leave the ship without his knowledge; he allows no person to leave the ship without the knowledge or permission of the executive officer; he informs the executive officer and the commander when officers having command and fleet captains come alongside, and informs the executive officer when they are about to leave; he has idlers called at daylight' in case of an alarm of fire, he causes the alarm bell to be rang and at once informs the commander and executive officer; has all officers called and guards against noise and confusion as the crew assembles at quarters; he discountenances all unseemly behavior upon the quarter-deck; returns the salute of all officers coming upon it; he requires boatkeepers to remain in all boats that are down, to be on the alert, and requires all men in boats laying alongside the ship or at booms to rise and salute all officers passing near them; he permits no clothing to be laid about or stopped to dry except upon the clothes lines; causes a clothes line to be got up for drying clothes that are wet; he permits no washing of clothes at unauthorized hours; he permits nothing to be thrown out of the ports or over the rail. In a steamer when underway the officer of the deck does not permit the engines to be stopped without the permission of the commander, or speed to be slackened, except in case of accident or to avoid sudden danger or collision, when he will report promptly; he will cause the battery to be examined at night by a quarter-gunner of the watch, or in accordance with general orders; he will cause the pump well to be sounded and a report made to him of the water every two hours during night watches; he permits none of the crew to leave the ship improperly dressed; at sunset, in port, he directs the master-at-arms to see all strangers out of the ship except those visiting officers; he permits no strangers on board without permission of the commander or executive officer; all unusual lights below for which permission has been obtained must be reported to him, and he causes all lights to be raised every half hour by the midshipman of the watch or the corporal of the guard; he grants permissions to officers to use a light in their apartments for a few minutes; in case of sudden sickness he gives permission for such lights as the medical officer may require; he requires the lookouts to be vigilant.

In port he causes all boats approaching the ship to be hailed; he notes in the remarks of his watch the numbers of all signals made from or to the vessel, all sails made or land, &c. when sail is made or taken in, all articles of stores or provisions received or sent away, detachment or transfer of officer or crew to or from the vessel; when in port, the arrival and departure of men-of-war, and any event he may deem worthy of record; he reports the time at 8 o'clock A.M., at meridian, and at 8 P.M., to the commander. In cleaning ship, he is particular that the ladders are throughly scrubbed in all sides, that they are well dried with swabs before putting them in the hatches, that gratings are holystoned or scrubbed on both sides, that buckets are not pushed along the deck but passed from hand to hand, that corn brooms are not ruined by being wet with salt water; when holystoning, he always has guns removed so that the deck underneath them is not neglected, unless otherwise ordered; sees that the quarter-gunners put wash deck chocks under guns before the decks are washed down; that the decks are throughly washed down, well dried down in waterways, under the breast of guns, about masts, fiferails, bitts, manger, and all places likely to be neglected; he sees that the guards are not neglected when holystoning or scrubbing decks; in port, after washing down, he sends the carpenter's mate, under the superintendence of the carpenter, around the ship in a boat to wash off the sand under the scuppers, to see that no lint is collected about the wheels, inside the paddles boxes or upon the outside of the ship generally, and to mend paint if so ordered; he squares yards and hauls rigging taut before breakfast, and requires the quartermaster of the watch to keep the pennant and colors clear when they are up; he pays particular attention when sail is set that the sheets are home alike and the sails taut up, that yards are properly trimmed. Before all hands are called and hammocks piped up, he causes the officers in charge of lower decks to be called. The officer of the deck remains upon the starboard or weather side of the quarter-deck, unless duty should require his presence elsewhere. He allows no article of clothing belonging to the crew to be sent out of the ship without permission of the executive officer.

The master has load and log lines measured and marked, keeps a correct error and rate of chronometers, is responsible for instruments under his charge, has charge of charts, books, log and everything appertaining to the navigation of the vessel; he has a correct copy made from the log-slate each day upon the log-book, has log-book signed by watch officers each week; he cause the vessel's draught to be entered in the log at the time of entering and leaving port; he cause to be noted in the log each day the number of sick, the expenditure of firewood and the quantity on board, and when at sea, the latitude and longitude at meridian; he takes observations for longitude morning and afternoon, fir latitude at meridian, reports the position of the ship at 8 A.M., at meridian, and at 8 P.M.; he ascertains by azimuth observations the variation of the compass, and by every means in how power the deviation from local attraction; he takes bearing of anchorages of the ship, and notes them in the log; he corrects the deck time at 8 A.M. and 8 P.M.; he is charged with getting relieving tackles in readiness for use, with slinging yards and gaffs, fishing masts and yards, when preparing for a whilst in action; at an alarm of fire, he prepares the boats and makes preparations for getting them out; at sea he corrects the time by the apparent trim of the ship at meridian, in port by mean local time; he takes the deck at quarters, and in action works and directs the course of the vessel under the directions of the commander and executive officer.

Division officers examine the clothing of the men of their divisions once a month, see that it is marked properly, prohibit any selling of exchange of clothing without their permission; they make out requisitions for clothing monthly, and it is their duty to observe that the articles required are not intended to be sold or sent out of the vessel, and that men who are in debt are not marked down for unnecessary articles; they ascertain that each man has the allowance of clothing require by general orders; they inspect the men at quarters, that they are properly and cleanly dressed, that flannel is worn next to the skin, that shoes are worn when at quarters for any purpose; when exercising they are satisfy themselves that every man understands the duties of every position at the gun, particularly that every one can point and load it accurately; they caution them against the evil of firing too high, and are careful that the manner of pulling the lockstring to ensure certain explosion of the primer is understood by all; they apply for permission to use primers when exercising with unloaded guns, that the men may have the requisite practice; they explain to every man his duty, and endeavor to excite interest and thoroughness in the exercise; they inspect arms and the brightwork at the guns at morning quarters each day.

No. VII (Published 20 MAY 1865)

Midshipmen, when mot performing the duty of a higher grade, act as assistants to the officer of the deck during their watch, take charge of boats leaving the vessel upon ordinary service, take charge of lower decks, holds and spirit-room; the senior in each watch having charge of the forecastle, is responsible for the correct performance of duty and maintenance of order on the forward part of the deck, marks the log-slate as directed; they take observations with the master, and send in their work each day for the inspection of the commander; they keep a copy or an abstract copy of the ship's log; they occupy the steerages and sleep in hammocks. The midshipman of the watch examines all lights every half hour during the night, and makes report to the officer of the deck; he notifies officers at nine and ten o'clock P.M. that the master-at-arms may extinguish lights in their apartments; he is the means of communication between the officer of the deck and the commander, and superintends and directs the execution of all orders issued by the officer of the deck; endeavoring to acquaint himself with the duties of the higher grade to when he aspires and acquire all possible professional information; he mixes necessarily with the men why in the performance of his duty, and materially conduces to the good discipline of the vessel, by checking disorderly conduct and requiring strict obedience to general and special orders; while on watch he musters the watch as soon as it is relived and as often as he may be directed to do so afterwards, reporting to the officer of the deck; he calls steerage officers and sees their hammocks up at 7 A.M. The officer of the forecastle masters forecastlemen and foretopmen, the midshipmen upon the quarter-deck, the maintopmen, mizzentopmen and afterguard. Master's mates occupy the same quarters and perform the same duty as midshipmen.

The boatswain is charged with the care of all rigging, lashings, seizings, anchors, cables, hawsers when in use; he examines all rigging every morning and reports all defects and chafes; he performs such duty as the executive officer may direct; is on deck or ready for duty from daylight to 8 P.M.; assists in the performance of any duty on the forecastle or that requires his attention; he sees that the load of running is the best that circumstances will permit; reports at 8 A.M. and at 8 P.M., the condition of everything in his department; in the evening examining topsail sheets and main buntlines, and running rigging generally before reporting, that he may know all to be clear for running; he calls all hands, assists in the general duties of the ship, using his call instead of the voice when it can be done; squares yards and hauls rigging taut, attends the side for commanding officers and fleet captains; under orders of the master, he has yards and gaffs slung, on preparing for action or exercise, and topsail sheets stoppered and stoppers rigging in case of emergency; he has general supervision of preparations for all exercise aloft; at quarters he is first boarder and sail trimmer.

The gunner is charged with the care of all ordnance and ordnance stores, and reports all defects and deficiencies to the executive officer, also condition of magazines and shell-rooms; he keeps account of expenditures of ammunition and implements; he keeps passing boxes always filled in magazine passage, and shell-rooms so stored that shells may be passed up without delay; he reports at 8 A.M. and 8 P.M. the condition of everything in his department, examining the battery in the evening before reporting to see that everything is in place and that the guns are clear of all encumbrances; port laniards are under his charge, and when necessary he changes the seizings to them so that the ports hang square; he superintends the clearing of the battery; has wash deck chocks put under guns; has charge of life buoys.

The carpenter has the care of hull, spars, boats, with their spars and oars, of pumps, pump gear and hose not in engine room, of air ports, gratings, tarpaulins, capstan and bars, combings, hatches, awning stanchions, and shifting half ports. In preparing for battle he has at hand shot plugs, felted board, tarred canvas, sheet lead with holes bored or punched ready for use, sees that spar-tiller is ready fitted and of proper dimensions for shipping without delay; he examines boats, decks, spars, and reports all necessary repairs to the executive officer; he keeps sharp axes becked in convenient places for use, if necessary, to cut away spars, clear away wreck, scuttle decks, clear away bulkheads, &c.; he takes ship's draught and hands it in writing to the officer of the deck immediately after entering and before leaving port, superintends clearing of combings and skylights of after part of ship on spar and main decks, the washing of the ship around and of the paint outside and cleaning of copper every morning; all painting is done under his supervision. At sea, he reports at 8 A.M. the condition of everything in his department to the executive officer; and at 8 P.M., also the water in the pump well; that hatch battens and tarpaulins are in place ready for use, rails and hammocks read; he superintended pumping ship out with deck pumps, and reports to the officer of the deck when it is done; at quarters, he attends pumps, covers hatches, assists in clearing wreck, plugs suppers; he stows and clear away boats and booms; he is stationed at the capstan when it is being used; has bars shipped and swiftered in.

The sailmaker has the care of preservation and repairs of all sails and awnings; he makes tarpaulins, keeps spare sails always in readiness for coming up and bending; he reports to the executive officer at 8 A.M. and at 8 P.M. the condition of everything under his charge, and examines and reports to the executive officer all occasion of chafe or injury to sails that he may observe; he superintends sewing numbers on hammocks.

The boatswain, carpenter and the sailmaker go aloft every morning and examine the condition of the rigging, spars and sails before reporting.

Should any of the crew wish to make a statement to the commander, he makes his request known through the officer of the deck to the executive officer; if the crew generally wish to represent any grievance or ask any indulgence or information, it is done through the same channel by a deputation of three or four leading petty officers. No person is excused from duty unless pronounced to be sick and placed upon the sick report by the medical officer. The crew smoke only at meal hours, and from the time of piping down hammocks till 8 P.M.; a light in a lantern is provided for their use at such times by the master-at-arms. When alongside other vessels, boat's crews remain in boats, unless permission is given to them to leave; they rise and salute all officers coming alongside or shoving off from the ship or passing near them. Men do not wear waist belts; each man carries a clasp-knife by a laniard about the neck; no sheath-knives are allowed to be carried.

Such hours as are selected by the executive officer with approval of the commander for sending boats when in ports, are marked upon a board and kept upon the quarter-deck for reference.

Loaders and spongers to guns scrub rammers and sponge staves, and handspikemen hand spikes; the [gun] captains clean lock and sights, each man cleaning his own arms and such parts of the gun as his station gives him.

Steady cooks are allowed to petty officers' messes, but are changed every three months, that their general usefulness may not be impaired.

The sailmaker's mate gets up benches when commencing work, and stows them away in the sailroom when decks are cleared up before supper; he is excused from watch when constantly employed.

The ship's cook has charge of the galley; he keeps it, the deck about it, and its appurtenances, clean, with the assistance of his mate and the cooks of the officers' messes, and has it ready for inspection each day; the brightwork before morning inspection, and the coppers scrubbed and washed out by two o'clock P.M.; he attends to all the cooking done for the crew, a berth-deck cook assisting him with the scouse; he is paid by the Government, and can have no claim for extra compensation from the ship's company. From the time of starting fires till six A.M. the range of the galley is used, with the sanction of the executive officer, for cooking scouse for the berth-deck messes and the oven at times when not in use by the officer's cooks. The ship's cook reports to the master's mates of the berth-deck and of the hold when the coppers are ready for filling, and water is pumped or passed from the tanks by the berth-deck cooks; he keeps the cisterns in the deck about the galley funnel fulled with water, and has the funnel cleaned in rotation each morning before inspection by the galley cooks; he allows no one to come to the galley who does not belong there, and permits no fire to be taken from it without orders of an officer; he skims the pork slush from the coopers and puts it in the slush-barrel, allowing no use to be made of it without orders from the executive officer, except to fill slush-buckets for ship's use every Friday and for shortening to the duff to berth-deck cooks after drawing flour; when a barrel is filled it is headed up and stowed in the hold to be sold by the executive officer's orders, and the proceeds deposited with the paymaster, to be expended, with the sanction of the commander, in the purchase of musical instruments, to supply rewards at target practice, covers to coffins, cushions, &c., to boats and various useful and ornamental conveniences and necessities for the ship and ship's company. The ship's cook sees the galley fires out before eight o'clock P.M.

The officer or master's mate in charge of the main-deck sees the hammocks off the deck within ten minutes after all hands are called, and reports to the officer of the deck; he has the deck throughly swept down before wetting down, applies to the officer of the deck for orders regarding cleaning the deck and executes them, giving attention to all paintwork about the deck, to that in the hatches of the deck above; see that the deck in waterways, about bits, masts, capstan, guns, &c. is throughly scrubbed or holystoned, that all gratings are cleaned on both sides and scrubbed between the battens with canvas and sand; before washing down he see that wash deck chocks are under the rear axles of the guns; he sees that all sand is washed from under the trucks and the breast of the guns, that the deck afterwards well dried, especially there, in waterways, about masts, bits, combings, and all out of the way places; when chains are bent he sees that the deck is not neglected under them, and will also have an eye to it amidships, under launch and hencoops, he sees that all hencoops in use are throughly cleaned out every morning, that all spit-boxes are properly cleaned by the sweepers; he has the deck swept down immediately after drying down, always prior to meals and after hands are turned to, and whenever it is swept he has spit-boxes cleaned out and ladders from spar-deck swept also; he allows no dirt or sweepings to be thrown out a port or pushed into a scupper; has it taken to the head and thrown into the dill; he allows no hammocks to be hung with the laniard or clues across the corner of a beam or knee, and requires every man to hang in his proper berth according to his number; he has all brightwork upon the deck kept clean; he superintends serving out the provisions; he keeps the port side of the deck clear, except when duty is being carried on there; he maintains silence and good order upon the deck at all times; he reports all offenders to the officer of the deck; he permits no boots, shoes, ditty bags, clothes, books, papers, or any rubbish to be hung upon hammock hooks, or stowed over knees or battens, or over capstan bars, in the ports or breasts of the guns; allows nothing to be left about the deck that should be kept in the clothes bags of the men; he sees that the deck is properly dried up by the blacklisters or other men from the pumps after pumping; when in port or when chains are bent he examines them by half-past seven o'clock, sees that there are no stops or lashing on them in the hawse or elsewhere, and none but the proper stoppers on board; and reports to the officer of the deck and executive officer at eight o'clock that they are clear for veering; he never allows a cable that is bent to remain at night unbitted when in port, or at any time without orders. At sea, after super, he has the steep tub, the ship cook's mess chest and the harness cask moved forward and secured near the manger; and at six bells the chests of officer's cooks moved to the same place, and all so secured that they will not encumber the battery; he has bridle and bow ports shut in and secured at sea at seven bells of the last dog watch; he allows nothing to be kept in the manger but the hawse bucklers and bars; he permits nothing to be put in the hencoops but poultry; when hammocks are piped down he sees them properly hung; he reports to the officer of the deck when the main-deck is cleared up for meals, quarters or hammocks.

No. VIII (Published 27 MAY 1865)

The officer in charge of the berth-deck sees hammocks up, and reports to the officer of the deck; he obtains orders from him for cleaning the deck; in port, sweeps down before wetting down immediately after hammocks are up; at sea, sweeps down after hammocks are up, but cleans the deck after breakfast and quarters; he sees that the deck, gratings, coamings and hatches are well scrubbed or holystoned, those parts of the deck particularly about the stanchions, near bulkhead, combings, lockers and under bagracks, and that it is properly dried up. When clamping with hot water in damp or cold weather he sees that it is dried up as fast as clamped, before the water has time to cool; before holystoning, he reports to the officer of the deck, and if the bags are piped up, he sees that all are taken on deck; he sees that lumber in the waterways is removed and the deck well holystoned and dried up before it is replaced; he keeps the whitewash in order, allowing no hammock to be hung with clues or lanyards across the corner of a beam or knee; he has a passage way kept clear of hammocks on the starboard side of the deck to the sick bay, he superintends the cleaning of the sick bay, fore passage, storeroom, cockpit, when cleaning the berthdeck, or according to special orders; superintends the serving of small stores, and of provisions in sloops; has all paintwork on the deck and that to the main-deck hatches wiped off after washing down every day, and scrubbed, when the deck is holystoned, with salt water, canvas and sand; he sees that the starboard side of the deck is kept clear in port; has the deck ready for inspection each day at ten o'clock A.M. or in accordance with orders; maintains order upon the deck, and requires prompt obedience to all orders given there; sees that sweepers do not neglect main-deck ladders, or that part of the deck around stanchions, masts, combings, bulkheads, or under bag racks and around mess chests; he has whitewash put on with care once a week - on Friday mornings or according to general orders - and when necessary reports to the executive officer that the whitewash may be scraped off or rubbed down and renewed; he sees that hatch cable-compressors are always in readiness for use, the tackle falls in order, and when the anchors are down, securely belayed; he keeps ironwork and spare anchor neatly blacked. When the galley is on the berth-deck, he sees that the master-at-arms has the fire extinguished before eight o'clock P.M.; he has the bags taken out of racks or from the jackstay by the cooks before breakfast and before supper, and that each man bestows his won in its proper place after he has used it; he messes the crew by watches and parts of the ship according to orders of the executive officer and berths them according to watch numbers, the boys and marines on the after part of the deck.

The master's mate or officer in charge of the hold is responsible for the stowage of everything in the holds, that it is properly dunnaged, is secured from filching away, and in good order; that each day's provisions can be obtained without too much breaking out, and that provisions and stores are not injured by being frequently broken out and re-stowed, that the captain of the hold does his duty, that he keeps the combings of the hatches properly cleaned, anchors in hatches and spare articles and ironwork in the hold properly cleaned and blacked and ready for use, shot lockers, chain lockers and cable tiers clear and properly stowed; the officer in charge has a correct account kept of wood and water on board, and of the storage of provisions; has chain locker hatches taken off each night before closing the hold, that chains may be veered without delay; has cable tiers so stowed that as little delay as possible may be experienced when anything there is wanted; he guards against getting any of the gear in the tiers wet, receives no articles in the hold that will make dirt without express orders, and prevents dirt from working its way into the tanks, has tanks thoroughly cleaned out and whitewashed before refilling; allows no person in the holds except upon duty, and nothing to be stowed there that does not belong there, unless by order of the superior officer; he sees the holds secured, after having been examined by the master-at-arms, every evening at sunset, and turns the keys in to the executive officer, and making report to him.

Yards are squared after every exercise aloft, or use of them that might derange them. All hands are called "to square yards," and the boatswain examines them and squares them by the braces; men so stationed are then sent aloft together, and the boatswain goes ahead in a boat manned for the purpose, the chief boatswain's mate going out on head booms, and the boatswain's mates stationed upon the forecastle and in the gangways passing his orders; he calls out the condition of the yard, whether to starboard or port; if not square, commencing with the fore-yard, and after the lower-yards, the foretopsail-yards, and so on; he examines the appearance of everything aloft, sees that the rigging is neatly coiled down in the tops, the clues of sails square and neatly hauled up, the heels of booms square, the eyes of rigging clear of litter; that nothing is stowed in the doublings of masts, lifts and braces neatly stopped in, with eyes flat on crosstrees or close in to square of masthead, and mastropes rounded up and hooked at crosstrees and jack, the heads of headsails stowed snugly down on booms; all running rigging taut; he examines the stay of the masts, the peak of gaffs, and observes that nothing is left upon the rigging that should have been taken down, that wind sails are hoisted square fore and aft, that nothing is stopped to the toprails, and no ends or blights of ropes are hanging from the tops; he pipes down as he comes along side after passing entirely around the ship, the chief boatswain's mate following him to pass his orders. After loosing sails the boatswain squares the heels of booms, the clue jiggers and buntlines, or bowlines and clues, if hauled out by bowlines.

In getting in and out boats, the carpenter, under direction of the officer of the deck or the master, has booms broken out and re-stowed, and prepares the boats to go out or for their reception, and attends to landing them in their cradles or chocks. The forecastlemen get out whip for foreyard tackle, and hook burtons and rolling tackle; the foretopmen send down ship for forestay tackle pendant; quarter-gunners and main-yard men get out whip for main-yard tackle, hook burtons and rolling tackle; the outer burton is hooked at the topmast head, the inner one at lower cap; maintopmen send down whip for mainstay tackle pendant; captains of forecastle clear away and hook on fore-yard, and gunner's mate the main-yard; afterguard get a guy on stern of the boat to rouse her aft clear of foretopmast backstays and into her bed.

Studding sail booms, when triced up to scrape and oil, are not lowered until dry.

Before airing bedding call all hands to stand by hammocks, and before piping them down pass the word to open and air bedding, each watch on its own side, forecastlemen and foretopmen in fore rigging, maintopmen, firemen, coal heavers and afterguard in the main, and mizzentopmen and marines in the mizzen, triced up clear of awnings and above the ridge rope inside the rigging; when sufficiently aired call all hands to stand by hammocks, boatswain and mates pass the word lash up hammocks and restow in nettings, the men lay up together, cast off the bedding, and at the pipe down, lay down, lash up and stow.

When all hands are called to stand by hammocks, the men come on deck and strand close into the rail, each watch on its own side, keeping silence. Everybody being on deck, the boatswain reports to the officer of the deck, receives the orders to pipe down; on giving the preparatory pipe the men stationed to pass out hammocks, quartermasters in after nettings on starboard side, captains of the afterguard and mizzentop on port side, captains of maintop and quarter-gunners in starboard gangway, captains of the foretop and forecastle in port gangway; or if the ship has nettings around the bow and stern, captains of the forecastle and mizzentop are stationed there, throw back the hammock cloths, and standing upon the rail take out the hammocks, calling out the number of each; those not taken from the hammock stowers are laid across the rail; the cloths are hauled over and stopped down by each part of the ship, after taking down the hammocks. When hammocks are piped up, the same men stow them carefully at the same height from the rail, with the number up and in board, rejecting all not well lashed up with ends neatly turned over and clues tucked in, to be relashed. The hammocks of midshipmen are lashed and stowed, and taken down and hung up by men selected for the purpose by the young gentlemen; these men scrub the hammocks of the midshipmen for whom he performs the service when scrubbing his own. Each man's hammock has upon it his watch number; a midshipman's, the initials of his name. To get up long clothes lines at sunset, men are send aloft together, and whips overhauled down; topmen get up the lines and stretch them along fore and aft the deck, clear them, whips are hooked, lines hooked abath and rove forward; whips are manned, and, at the third roll of the drum, the lines tied up and hauled taut forward. When short or sea lines are used, mizzentopmen and afterguard get them up, clear them, get whips on main after shroud and forward swifter of mizzen-rigging, hook on to jackstays, trice up, a few hands laying up and bringing to; clothes are stoppered to lines by stops sewed into eyelet holes in each piece, the white above those that are colored; hammocks are stoppered by the head, with numbers up, and out if gantlines, trice up and in if to the yardarms, and each one stopped at the foot to that on either side. Clothes when taken from the lines are put into the clothes bags of the men; hammocks are turned in by calling divisions to quarters, mustering them and making them up in bundles by gun's crews or divisions, each watch separately, tallying each bundle, and stowing in the sailroom. When clothes are on the sea lines, all hands on the watch having been called to "stand by washed clothes" and bring on deck, afterguard and mizzentopmen lay aloft and cast off the stops to the jackstay; when all is clear, order is given by the officer of the deck, and when the boatswain and mates pipe down, whips are let go and men lay down. When long lines are up and awnings spread, all hands being upon deck, men of each part of the ship lay up and cast off side stops and single earings of the awnings; at the order of the officer of the deck, when everything is ready, the boatswain and mates pipe down, whips and earings are let go, and the men lay in; rovings are immediately rove, whips unhooked and the awnings hauled out; men lay out and bring to the side stops and lay in before taking clothes from the lines; the lines are stretched along clear, after the clothes are removed, stopped up and sent to main-hold.

No. IX (Published 3 JUN 1865)

Before the time for calling all hands in the morning, in port, the drummer and fifer are called; at the order of the officer of the deck to go on with the music the drummer gives three taps; sentries fire muskets at the third tap, and the drummer beats off for ten or fifteen minutes; when the music ceases the boatswain calls all hands and pipes up the hammocks, should the weather be too inclement to admit of stowing of hammocks in the nettings without getting them wet; after calling all hands they are piped down, lashed up and triced close up under the beams; in the evening at a quarter before eight or nine o'clock, according to the season of the year, the music being on deck, at the order of the officer of the deck the call is beaten, and, after an interval of a minute or two, the drummer is directed to go on with the music; when the hour is reported, the officer of the deck gives order to roll off; if alone or if the ship be that of a senior officer, the drummer beats "Yankee Doodle," and gives afterwards three rolls; at the third roll the sentries fire muskets; if in company with a senior officer's ship the muskets are fired at the flash of those, or of the gun of that ship, the drummer giving three rolls at once, then beating the air of "Yankee Doodle," without an especial order. In flag-ships a gun is fired instead of muskets.

The quartermaster at the conn in a sailing ship directs the man at the wheel, by saying "too near," "no higher," "nothing off," "luff," "very well thus;" he stands when by the wind upon the horseblock in the weather-quarter boat, or on the rail abreast of the wheel, where he can see the sails on the foremast; if the ship is laying her course with a fair wing, man the wheel to windward; in a steamer, he gives order "port," "starboard," "steady," "steady a-starboard," "steady a-port," and stands near the wheel on the starboard or weather side of the deck where he can see the ship's head; the man at the weather-wheel always repeats the order of the quartermaster. In getting a cast of the deep sea lead, order is given to "man the side and stand by to get a cast of the lead;" a forecastleman takes the lead forward, and after a quartermaster has armed it, and gives it to the captain of the forecastle at the weather-cathead; at the watch gets upon the weather-rail into the chains and boats, pass the line from the quartermaster on the quarter to the mizzentopmen, and thus forward, outside and underneath everything, to the captain of the forecastle who bonds it with the lead; each man then from forward takes in his hand a coil of strong line; at the report from the officer of the forecastle that all is ready, and when enough line is forward, the way of the ship is deadend, the officer of the deck gives the order "stand by," "heave," the captain of the forecastle throws the lead clear of the ship, and each man, as the line tautens in his hand, cries "watch them," "watch!" and lets go, the quartermaster getting the soundings; the line is manned, hauled in and coiled in the tub.

When squaring ratlines, rattling, or tarring down rigging, the spar-deck is well sanded down, boats hanging at the davits, and lower masts covered, hoods put over hatches; blacking is put on with woolen rags, and all precautions taken against dropping it from aloft; the rigging is sparred down on the previous evening. The boatswain gives general superintendence; a boatswain's mate attends at each mast; forecastlemen work upon fore-yard, fore-rigging, fore-stay, and lower boom topping lift; the gunner's mate, quartermasters, quarter gunners, upon main rigging, main-yard; a main-yard man rides down the main-stay; afterguard on cross-jack, spanker-boom, topping-lift, mizzen-rigging and mizzen-stay; the topmen take all else.

"Blacklisters" are assigned to extra duty for minor offenses; they pump out the ship, clean brightwork, scrub copper, scrape shot or iron work, and are called upon for any unseal or disagreeable work; a record is kept of the offense and duration of the punishment, and it is entered in the log; a list is kept upon deck for the use of the officer of the deck.

Each man or boy is allowed a ditty bag in which to keep his sewing articles; it is cut out by the sailmaker, twelve inches in length and five inches in diameter; except from breakfast time till supper time, they are kept in the clothes bags.

Clothes, ditty bags, boots, shoes, and other articles, left about the ship uncared for or put into improper places, are set to the master-at-arms, and deposited in the "lucky bag;" from time to time the executive office causes these articles to be brought to the main-mast on the spar-deck; the word is passed for all those who have lost or missed such articles, to go there, and such as are recognized and a claim established by marks or witness, regains it. A record is kept of the names of those recovering their property in this manner, and they are placed upon the blacklist by the executive officer; all articles not claimed after having been offered for recognition on two or more occasions are sold by the master-at-arms at public auction in presence of the executive officer, and the amounts bid charged to the purchasers, and placed to the credit of the slush fund by the paymaster. Clothing that is worthless is taken for ship's use as cleaning and gun rags.

A seaman is selected from each watch to attend at each mast, to lead out rigging, lay it up, keep it clear, and coil it down; the mastmen clean the deck about the mast and fiferails, and scrub lower masts below the futtock-shrouds; the fore-mastmen have numbers on the watch bill next after the maintopmen, mizzen-mastmen next after mizzentopmen; in small vessels, the second captain of afterguard acts as mizzen-mastman.

A bag is kept in the main hold in which pieces of ropeyarn and spunyarn and fragments of hemp rope, that are picked up by the sweepers from the deck when they sweep, are placed; these "shakings" in case of emergency are picked for oakum, or sold for the benefit of the slush fund.

Large bags are made in which to stow the peajackets of the men when not in use, one for each part of the ship; at seven bells of the morning watch the peajackets that are not to be used during the day in cold weather, and all peajackets in warm weather, are rolled up and stowed in the bags till after supper. The peajacket bags are stowed on the booms or in after parts of hammock-nettings.

Before manning yards, life-lines are got up, rove through a block on the tie, and the standing part made fast to the lift, breast high from the yard, and stopped snugly down the lift and along the yard; men being stationed for the yards, the tallest in the slings, all lay aloft together, and take stations close in at the slings on the yards; stops to life-lines being broken by men in tops and on deck, and lines hauled tight at the order, and the order given to lay out, the men walk out on the yards, steadying themselves by the life-line, and take such distance - each extending his arms at full length along the life-line - that the hands meet, and all face towards the boat or vessel of the personage to whom the honor is paid, either forward or aft; but if a boat, and it come alongside; the men change at the order so as to face towards the gangway; if passing the ship in a vessel, they change at the order when necessary, that they may face towards it; those on head booms and gaffs face also towards the boat, vessel or gangway. All lay in at the order except the outermost man on each yard-arm, who casts off the life-line and brings it in when he is ordered to lay in.

Petty officers and men pass forward of the mainmast and come upon the quarter-deck from forward on the lee side at sea, and on the port side in port, or if the ship be running before the wind, or steaming with no sail set.

At the beat to quarters, every one repairs at once to stations; on beating the retreat, at the first tap of the drum, officers leave, the men remaining at their stations till the last tap

The wheels, screw, smoke-stack and guys are cleaned and kept in order by the firemen and coalheavers.

When crossing topgallant and royal yards and loosing sails, the light sails being bent, the sail-loosers lay aloft when the yards are ready to sway higher after putting on upper lift and brace.

The ship's company is stationed from and by the watch bill, each watch number being made to give a station at quarters and for all evolutions and exercises of every description that never changes; if a man proves to be unsuitable for the stations of the number he holds, he is changed on the watch bill to a number the stations of which he can fill; each station is as much as is practicable the same for all exercises. Station bills are made out that give every station appertaining to each watch number, and are placed in some conspicuous place in the ship, where every person of the crew can have free access to them at all times; the ship's company is also frequently mustered at stations.

The usage of the service as presented here may differ somewhat from that laid down in the Rules and Regulations prepared and issued by authority of the old Board of Navy Commissioners, but usage may be supposed to change as years roll on. Imperfect as is this article, as far as it goes, it is believed to offer that of the Navy at the time of the commencement of this war. If what he has so incompletely prepared but serve to awaken attention to the subject and give useful hints to officers of less experience than himself, the writer will feel that his labor has not been thrown away. The Navy Commissioner's book of regulations is becoming very rare; not one officer in ten now in the Navy probably ever saw a copy, and many, doubtless, have never heard of its existence. It is to be hoped that a complete set of rules and orders, embracing all details for guidance in the performance of every duty on board ship, may soon be prepared and issued, in accordance with a late law of Congress. Certainly, at no time would it be more acceptable and of more utility to the Navy than now.