This appears to have been COMO Levy's last work before his death. It obviously went to press before July 1862 with the reference to "Flag Officer Charles Stewart" instead of David Farragut, the latter who was moved to the top of the active list 16 July 1862. Prior that date, Stewart stood at the number one slot despite being retired per officer registers.
It also appears that Marines afloat had to pay "ship tax" even in the 1860s.
Manual of Internal Rules and Regulations For Men-of-War
Late flag officer commanding US Naval Forces in the Mediterranean; originator of the abolition of corporal punishment in the US Navy.
Third Edition Revised; With Rules and Regulations for the Engineer Department
By A. C. Stimers.
Published by D. Van Nostrand,
No. 192 Broadway
Some years ago, the compiler issued a compendium intended to assist young officers in proving for the discipline, police and sanitary government of men-of-war.
The two editions, which were distributed gratis for applicants, were soon exhausted. Recently, numerous applications have been made for the work, and permission to republish it has been solicited and granted. It has been somewhat recast and amended.
It is intimated that it would be very useful at this time, when so many new officers, taken from the merchant service, are employed temporarily in the naval service.
The compiler will be amply rewarded if, as he hopes, it shall prove useful.
The publisher is indebted to A. C. Stimers, Esq., Chief Engineer, U.S.N. for the Rules and Regulations for the Engineer Department, which are added in the hope of making the work more generally useful to the officers of the navy.
I. The strictest attention must be paid to the orders issued by the Navy Department.
II. Every superior officer is directed to exact, upon all occasions, from his inferiors, unequivocal and respectful compliance with his orders; and it is expected of all his inferiors that they will not neglect any exterior mark of respect whenever they address, or are addressed by, a superior.
III. The sentinels on post, and the men about the decks, will salute any officer who may pass them.
IV. Officers of all ranks shall salute their official superiors in passing or addressing the, whether they are ashore or afloat, and whether they are, or are not, in uniform.
V. The honor due the quarter-deck cannot be dispensed with. On entering it, either from below, or a boat, a polite and decent deportment from one officer to another is expected; and all officers and men ascending to the quarter deck will salute by touching their caps. The officer of the deck will return the salute.
VI. Boat-keepers will stand up in their boats and salute officers coming alongside, on leaving, or on shore where they may be.
VII. The officers and petty officers are required to make themselves personally acquainted with the ship's company, in order that they may address them by their proper names, or as sailor, but never as "You, sir," as it is degrading so to address a man.
VIII. No improper language is to be used on the quarter-deck, or elsewhere.
IX. Blasphemy, profanity and every species of obscenity or immorality, are strictly forbidden, and it is hoped that officers of every grade will, upon all occasions, discountenance and discourage such disorderly and despicable practices among the ship's company.
X. The watches are to be equally divided, and each watch is subdivided, so as to make the quarter watches as nearly equal as possible; the marines with the non-commissioned officers, like the rest of the crew, are to be equally divided in half and quarter watches.
XI. Except on extraordinary occasions, no other duties shall be performed on Sundays than those necessary for working ship, trimming sails, washing decks, &c. On that day divine service will be performed by the chaplain, at half past 10 A.M., and all hands must be present, dressed and clean. The officers in undress uniform with epaulets, or otherwise, as the captain may direct.
XII. The warrant and petty officers, the seamen, ordinary seamen and marines, are to breakfast at 8 A.M., and have their dinners regularly at meridian. One hour is allowed them at each meal, when at sea.
XIII. The common duty, for which all hands are employed, is to be concluded at 4 P.M. daily.
XIV. The decks are to be washed in the morning watch. The gun-carriages, port-stills, quick-work, head and head-rails, channels, sides and all other wood-work, to be washed by the carpenter and his crew. Care must be taken that the decks are well dried.
XV. The quarter-deck is always to be kept clear of clothes, lumber, and dirt, and the ropes hung on pins or flemished.
XIV. The first Monday in every month is appointed for a general inspection of clothes, when the division officers are expected to examine, very particularly, into the people's clothing and bedding, and to report to the first lieutenant any deficiencies that may appear; who is to report the same to the captain, in case such deficiency is of magnitude.
XVII. No seaman or marines is to be permitted to go out of the ship on leave, unless, upon close examination of the officer of the deck, he shall be found clean and properly dressed.
XVIII. When at sea, the crew will be mustered at quarters every evening, half-an-hour before piping down the hammocks, when the officers of the divisions will see that the men are present, properly dressed and sober, and that the guns of their divisions are supplied with all necessary apparatus, and in perfect order for immediate action. They will report then to the first lieutenant, who will report to the captain.
XIX. No man is to be confined by day or night when the captain is on board, or punished at any time without his order; which order must be registered on the book of crimes and offenses. In the absence of the captain, the delinquent is to be confined, if it be necessary.
XX. When a man returns on board of the ship in a state of intoxication, all officers are directed to keep away from him, and not to exchange a sentence with him. His messmates are to be called; they will take charge of him, lead him forward and lash him up in his hammock, if, in the opinion of the officer of the deck, it is necessary.
XXI. Officers of every rank are expected when at quarters, when performing the duties of the ship, or when at their different stations, to preserve silence among the men, and see that the orders from the quarter-deck are executed with celerity and without noise or confusion.
XXII. At sea, or in harbor, a lieutenant of the ship, or the master, is always to be on the quarter-deck, in charge, together with two midshipmen and quartermasters.
XXIII. When the ship is in harbor, and so situation that no danger is to be apprehended from winds, currents, or an enemy, it may not be necessary to keep the regular quarter watches of the crew; in which case the commanding officer will give orders accordingly.
XXIV. All lights, except such as the captain or commanding officer shall suffer, are to be put out every evening at 8 o'clock in the winter, and 9 o'clock in the summer.
XXV. No fire is to be allowed in the galley after 8 o'clock in the evening, except such as may be permitted by the captain.
XXVI. No person is allowed to lounge in the ports or chains. The officers will not be permitted to sit down or lounge about the quarter-deck or hammocks.
XXVII. The uniform, prescribed by the Department, is to be worn on board and on shore by all officers who may be attached to the ship.
XXVIII. The weather side of the quarter-deck at sea, and the starboard side in port, are appropriated exclusively to the captain and the officer of the deck. The lee side at sea, and the port side when at anchor, may be used by the commissioned officers, midshipmen and masters' mates.
XXIX. From the 21st day of March to the 21st day of September, the colors are to be hoisted at 8 A.M.; and from the 21st day of September to the 21st day of March, they are to be hoisted at 9 A.M. and hauled down at sunset. In stormy weather a small flag must be substituted.
XXX. Whenever the flag officer is out of the ship, and is expected on board, at night, three lights are to be hoisted at the mizzen-peak. For the captain, two lights will be hoisted.
XXXI. The wind-sails are to be set, whenever the wether will permit, by order of the first lieutenant.
XXXII. Boats are not to remain on shore waiting for officers more than fifteen minutes.
XXXIII. Boats' crews in the absence of the officers of the boat, are commanded to obey the order of their cockswains who will be held responsible for their good conduct.
XXXIV. Cockswains are strictly forbidden to take any thing whatever from the ship or shore, without special permission.
XXXV. Officers of whatever rank will, in passing flag officers, American or foreign, toss oars. Commissioned officers will, in passing American Captains or Commanders, lie on their oars. Warrant officers will, to American Captains or Commanders, toss oars, and, to commissioned officers, lie on their oars.
XXXVI. When all hands are called, no person is to go below or to leave his station, upon any pretense whatever, before the watch is piped down, unless permission is given by the first lieutenant.
XXXVII. When all hands are called, all officers will repair to their stations.
XXXVIII. No lucifer matches are allowed in any part of the ship.
XXXIX. It is strictly forbidden to throw any dirty water, or dirt, out of the ports. Dirt of all kinds is to be taken to the head and started in the shoot.
XL. The officers may smoke upon the gun-deck forward of the foremast.
XLI. The crew may smoke upon the spar-deck, forward of the foremast, during the time allotted for meals, and from sunset till tattoo. In bad weather the officer of the deck may permit the men to smoke on the starboard side of the gun-deck, between the foremast and scuttle-butt.
XLII. The departure of all ward-room officers from the ship, and their return on board, will be noted on the log slate, by the officer of the watch.
XLIII. No boat will be allowed to come on the starboard side, except with a commissioned or wardroom officer in it.
XLIV. When a ship is riding at single anchor in an open roadstead, no officer or seaman ought to be allowed to leave the ship, except on duty, and then only with the consent of the captain.
XLV. Officers must occupy the rooms directed by the department - that is to say no officer entitled to live in the gun-room will be allowed to live or mess elsewhere.
XLVI. The captain of the head will be held responsible for the cleanliness of the head.
XLVII. If an officer shall observe any misconduct in his superior, or shall suffer any personal indignity, oppression or injustice, he is not, on that account, to fail, in any degree, in the respect due his superior, but he is to represent such misconduct or ill-treatment, to the captain of the ship, and through him to the commander-in-chief, as circumstances may require.
THE FIRST LIEUTENANT.
I. The senior lieutenant on duty is executive officer.
II. The first lieutenant has the general superintendence, as a day officer, from sunrise until 8 P.M. He is not considered a watch officer, but, in the event of a reduction of the regular watch officers below three, he is to take charge of a watch; unless otherwise directed by the captain.
III. He will watch, quarter and station the officers and crew.
IV. He is to keep complete revised quarter watch and station bills, which are to be hung up in the most public places in the ship, so that every person may be perfect in his station; and no alterations are to be made therein without the captain's knowledge and approbation.
V. He shall, under the advice and approval of the captain, as soon as possible after the ship goes into commission, institute a regular daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly routine of duty, and a daily routine of exercise.
VI. He shall require the midshipmen and masters' mates of watches to keep about their persons, and exhibit to him once a month, each his own copy of watch and quarter bills.
VII. He is to sign and authenticate all requisitions, and he will not permit any expenditure of stores without an order signed by himself.
VIII. He will make no change or alterations in any part of the ship or rigging, nor reeve new rigging, without reporting to, or consulting with and receiving the verbal or written order of the captain.
IX. When the weather is so bad that the hammocks cannot be stowed in the nettings, he will appoint a place where they are to be piled up.
X. Whether at sea or in harbor, he is to visit the ship throughout every morning, and see that she is clean and in proper condition in every part, and at ten A.M. report to the captain for his inspection.
XI. He will be particular to see that the batteries and small arms are at all times ready for action, and that all things appertaining to the battery are in perfect order and in readiness for immediate action, both by day and night.
XII. When the night watch is set, he will see that the gunner examines the battery, and will report to the captain that it is secure and the ship ready throughout to meet emergencies.
XIII. When all hands are called, he will take charge of the deck; unless otherwise ordered by the captain.
XIV. He will see that, at all times, three lieutenants, or two lieutenants and the mater, and one half of the forward officers, one medical and one marines officer, are on board ship; unless otherwise directed by the captain.
XV. He will see that the boats are at all times ready for service, both at sea and in port, and will carefully provide for lowering boats in case of accident.
XVI. All applications for leave, for a less space of time than twenty-four hours, must be made to the executive officer; for a longer time the application must be made to the captain.
XVII. He will see that all persons visiting the ship and who are entitled to a salute, are, upon leaving the ship, saluted with the number of guns to which their rank entitled them. The flag of the nation which is represented is, in all case, to be hoisted at the fore-royal mast-head and the stop broken at the first gun.
XVIII. He will see that all strangers are out of the ship before getting underway, and will permit no one to come on board while under way, without permission of the captain.
XIX. He will see that the master and the forward officers examine the rigging fore and aft, and from each mast-head down, every morning at sea, and that the bilge-cocks are frequently examined by the carpenter, and kept in good order by him.
XX. The keys of all the warrant officers' store-rooms will be kept by the first lieutenant, who will direct them to be returned to him before sunset every afternoon; when he is to examine that no lights have been left burning in the passages and rooms, and that the doors are locked, and examine all other parts of the ship where lights are used in the day time, and report to the captain at eight P. M.
XXI. The keys of the spirit-room are to be kept by the master. The master, marine officer, surgeon and paymaster, will keep the keys of their respective store-rooms, and will be held personally responsible for any accident that may happen therein.
XXII. Besides superintending the general executive routine duties of the ship, the first lieutenant will be particular to have the daily routine of exercise carried out.
XXIII. He will make himself acquainted with the internal rules and regulations of the ship, and see that they are enforced.
XXIV. He will pay particular attention to the requirements of the "ordnance instructions" under the head "executive officer."
The following may serve as a basis, upon which to model such a routine as circumstances may require.
DAILY ROUTINE IN PORT
I. At daylight call all hands.
II. Stow hammocks, allowing five minutes.
III. Wash decks, and prepare to execute morning orders.
IV. Go to breakfast for one hour.
V. Turn the hands to, and pump the ship out.
VI. Execute morning orders.
VII. Lower boats together.
VIII. Wash ship outside and clean copper.
IX. By fifteen minutes to eight bells the crew to be dressed uniformly.
X. Clean bright work.
XI. On hoisting colors, loose sails, when so ordered, and cross top-gallant yards in the following manner, viz: at five minutes before 8 A.M., call all hands up "top-gallant yards," order the top-gallant yard men aloft, and let them send down yard-ropes and be ready to receive the yards, as soon as possible. Sway aloft, directly from the chains, and cross yards together, then take down lifts to square mark, haul up yard ropes, and "down from aloft" immediately.
XII. Square yards and haul rigging taut.
XIII. Flemish rigging down.
XIV. In suitable weather spread awnings and roll back hammock-cloths.
XV. At 9.30 A.M. (Sundays excepted), beat to quarters and inspect crew in clothes prescribed for the day.
XVI. Mechanics and working gangs proceed according to orders.
XVII. The deck board will show the hours established for boats to leave the ship.
XVIII. At 11.30 A.M., clear up the decks.
XIX. At 12 o'clock, pipe to dinner.
XX. At 1 P.M., turn the hands to.
XXI. Mechanics and gangs proceed to work.
XXII. At 4 P.M., clear up deck.
XXIII. At 5 P.M., pipe to supper.
XXIV. At 5.30, turn the hands to.
XXV. At ten minutes to sunset, beat to quarters and inspect the crew in their woolen clothes.
XXVI. At sunset, hoist boats and send down top-gallant yards, in the following manner, viz.: call all hands at five minutes before sunset; send the yard men aloft and yard-ropes, &c., down, as in crossing sway at the third roll, trice in gear, haul up yard-ropes, and "down from aloft."
XXVII. Pump the ship out.
XXVIII. At 7 P.M., pipe hammocks down.
XXIX. By 9 P.M., the master-at-arms to report to the officer of the deck that the crew are in their hammocks.
DAILY ROUTINE AT SEA.
I. After the first essential duties of the watch are done, lay up rigging and wash or sweep decks.
II. Scrub clothes, except on Saturdays.
III. Pump the ship out.
IV. Clean decks, according to morning orders.
V. At six bells, call all hands and pipe hammocks up, allowing five minutes.
VI. Clean bright work.
VII. Call guns' crews to quarters, and rub off the guns.
VIII. Roll back hammock-cloths.
IX. At 8 o'clock, pipe to breakfast.
I. At two bells, turn the hands to.
II. At 9.30 beat to quarters, and inspect the crew in clothes prescribed for the day, except on Sundays.
III. Mechanics go to work according to orders.
IV. At seven bells, pipe down washed clothes and clear up decks.
V. At 12 o'clock, pipe to dinner.
I. At two bells, turn the hands to.
II. Mechanics resume work.
III. At seven bells, clear up decks.
IV. At 4 o'clock, pipe to supper.
I. At two bells, turn the hands to.
II. At ten minutes before sunset, beat to quarters and inspect the crew in wollen clothes.
III. Pump the ship out.
IV. At sunset, pipe hammocks down.
V. At 8 o'clock, set the night watch.
I. On Sundays, muster at quarters at 10 o'clock.
II. Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays are washing days in port.
III. On Monday morning, the yeoman's weekly report is due.
IV. On Tuesday, air bedding.
V. On Friday, sweep the galley-funnel.
VI. On Saturday, holy-stone all decks.
I. On the first and third Mondays, scrub hammocks.
II. On the first and third Fridays, scrape masts and booms and grease hide-ropes.
III. On the second and fourth Saturdays, air clothes.
I. On the first week-day, officers of divisions inspect clothes, see them properly marked, and make out requisitions.
II. On the first Sunday, general muster; read Act For the Better Government of the Navy, internal rules and regulations of the ship, and inspect the crew.
III. On the 15th, paymaster to issue small stores, on approved requisitions.
IV. On the last day of the month, master's mates and midshipmen of watches exhibit copies of watch and quarter bills to the executive officer.
V. On the first day of the month, the master-at-arms will send in to the captain the monthly return of prisoners, offenses and punishment.
I. On the first week-day of every second month, the paymaster will make returns of deaths, desertions, enlistments, transfers, &c.
I. The gunner will make a return of expenditure of ordnance equipments and stores in his department and will also report to the captain the condition of the arms and ammunition.
II. The yeoman's quarterly account of expenditures is due on the first week-day of the quarter.
III. At a suitable time in the quarter, overhaul cables and shot.
|1st Division||General Quarters||Rifles.||Great Guns||Fire Stations.||Single Sticks||Mending Day.|
|2nd Division||General Quarters||Great Guns||Rifles||Fire Stations||Mending Day|
|3rd Division||General Quarters||Rifles||Single Sticks||Fire Stations||Great Guns||Mending Day|
|4th Division||General Quarters||Great Guns||Fire Stations||Sharpe's Rifles||Mending Day|
|5th Division||General Quarters||Single Sticks||Rifles||Fire Stations||Carbines||Mending Day|
|6th Division||General Quarters||Carbines||Single Sticks||Fire Stations||Carbines||Mending Day|
|7th Division||General Quarters||Fire Stations||Single Sticks||Mending Day|
|Marines||General Quarters||Company Drill||Great Guns||Fire Stations||Company Drill||Mending Day|
Thursdays, after Fire Stations.
OFFICER OF THE DECK.
I. The post of the officer of the deck is on the quarter deck; but he must visit the other parts of the shop if his duties require him to do so.
II. He will pay great attention to the steerage and the course the ship makes on a wind, and note and mark upon the log what leeway the ship makes.
III. He will examine the compasses frequently, and compare them during the watch.
IV. He will be particularly attentive that the sheets are close home, sails mast-headed and yards nicely trimmed to the wind, and will closely observe that the look-outs are vigilant.
V. He will have the hand and deep-sea lead and lines at hand, and ready for use at all times.
VI. On taking charge of the deck he is to make himself acquainted, as far as practicable, with the supposed position of the ship, especially when approaching land, or in pilot water, and whether he may be likely to see any, or what light or land, or other information, which may assist him in keeping the ship out of danger, so long as he has charge of the deck.
VII. When the ship is in pilot water, or in the vicinity of land, rocks, or shoals, he is always to take particular care (whether the pilot thinks it necessary or not) that the hand or deep-sea lead, as the case may require, is kept constantly going; not only with a view of obtaining soundings when they may be expected as a guide for conducting the ship, but, also, as a precaution against the mistakes of the pilot. He will receive information from the master relative to the position of the ship.
VIII. He is not to make, or take in sail in the daytime, except in a squall, without directions from the captain; but, in the night, he make take in sail, acquainting the captain with his reasons, which he must enter on the log.
IX. He will be careful to shorten sail in time, particularly in squally weather.
X. He will inform the captain when sail is required.
XI. He must be particular in keeping all his watch on deck, and at their stations. He will always keep hands enough in the tops to take in his light sails, if they are set; and, both by night and by day, keep hands by royal, top-gallant, and topsail sheets and halyards; be the weather moderate or otherwise.
XII. In the night, clewlines and downhauls should and must always be stretched along and hands by them, as well as by tacks and sheets, and every precaution taken to shorten sail at at moment's warning.
XIII. He is not to tack, or veer, or alter the course, unless it is to avoid some sudden danger, without informing the captain.
XIV. He will see that the pumps are sounded every hour, at sea, and twice a day in port, and that the ship is pumped out whenever she has four inches more water in her than she sucks at.
XV. Whenever land or sails are discovered, he will immediately report the captain and will note all transactions, during the watch, on the log, and sign his name thereto.
XVI. The officer of the fist watch, before taking charge of the deck, will call on the captain, and receive his orders for the night.
XVII. He will see that whenever all hands are sent up to work ship, the midshipmen repair to their stations, as if all hands were called to tack or veer ship.
XVIII. In port, he is to acquaint himself with the situation of the hawse, number of anchors down, or ready to let go, scope of chain or cable, and depth of water. He will always, when in an open harbor, keep a hand in the channels with the lead and line.
XIX. He is to observe the boats moored at the booms, or astern, and see that they ride securely and in charge of a boat-keeper.
XX. No boats are to be allowed to come alongside with fruits or provisions, or for the purpose of trading with the men, without his permission. All boats are to be examined by the ship's corporal and master-at-arms, to prevent the introduction of forbidden articles.
XXI. All boats coming to, or going from the ship are to be reported to him; they are not to depart or come alongside without his consent.
XXII. He will keep a good look-out, and will preserve silence in the ship.
XXIII. He will never permit any order, more particularly that of taking in or makings sail, to be executed in a careless or slovenly manner.
XXIV. He will acquaint the captain with any important change in the weather, when lights are seen or when any unusual occurrences are observed.
XXV. He will see that the boats' crews, on leaving the ship at night, or in winter, or stormy weather, have their pea-jackets with them.
XXVI. He will give the captain timely notice when strangers or visitors of distinction are approaching the ship, in order that they may be received at the gangway with the honors due their rank.
XXVII. At eight o'clock in the morning, he will ascertain whether the chronometers are wound up, and report them daily, at that time, to the captain. He will also see that the time by the deck time-piece is regularly attended to, as well by night as by day, and that the bell is struck every half-hour.
XXVIII. He will see that the log is hove every hour, and the rate of sailing, courses, winds, currents, ripples, and occurrences marked on the log.
XXIX. He will not call all hands, unless the service to be performed cannot be executed by the watch and idlers. When all hands are required, he will inform the captain, and obtain his permission.
XXX. Whenever all hands are called, the first lieutenant will take charge of the deck.
XXXI. In port, the officer of the deck will see that the necessary boats are lowered down, after the decks are washed, or before, if the commanding officer thinks proper; that the yards are neatly squared, ropes hauled tight; not a rope-yarn to be seen flying about the yards or rigging; hammocks neatly stowed, and pipe to breakfast at 8 A.M. precisely.
XXXII. He will see that the men do not perform the ordinary duty of the ship in their best clothes, and when they are employed in washing decks, he will make them pull off their shoes and stockings and roll up their trowsers; but not in inclement or wintry weather.
XXXIII. He will not permit boats to be left, at any time, without boat-keepers, nor allow them to be at the gangway, nor alongside the ship when they can be conveniently be moored astern, or at the swinging boom.
XXXIV. He will see that the boats are hoisted up, or securely moored, every night, before it is dark, unless they are on ship's duty.
XXXV. He will not permit stores, or other articles, to be received on board, without a bill and receipt given for them by the officer to whose department they belong, and he will have them noted in the log. The officer for whose department they are intended, must be present to receive them.
XXXVI. He is to deliver to the officer who relieves him, all orders which remain to be executed, and is to point out to him the position of all sails in company (when in a squadron), so that he may preserve his station.
XXXVII. At sea, he will have the master and midshipmen informed, that at seven bells A.M., it is time to look out for the meridian altitude, and see that they are all in attendance.
XXXVIII. He will be very particular not to allow any leaning or lolling upon the hammocks, and not to allow the young gentlemen of the ship to gather in groups on the quarter-deck.
XXXIX. He will see that whenever provisions of any kind are to be served out, a midshipman is present to see it properly done, and when this duty is executed, the midshipman will report to the officer of the deck.
XL. He will see that no lights are unattended, and that all lights are out at the time allotted, unless permission be given by the captain. And it is particularly requested that no officer will read by his light after he turns in.
XLI. He is to have his watch mustered every hour and he is accountable for their being on deck.
XLII. He will not leave the deck until he is regularly relieved.
XLII. The deck is never to be left without a lieutenant or master, unless especially directed by the captain or commanding officer.
XLIV. He shall report all signals and movements of the flag-ship.
XLV. The officer of the deck and the first lieutenant, whenever the captain comes on board or leaves the ship, must be present to receive him; in the absence of the first lieutenant, the second will attend.
I. The master is to keep the key of the spirit-room in his possession, and the room is never to be opened without his knowledge and in his presence, or that of his mate. On leaving the ship on duty, or otherwise, he is to deliver the key of the spirit-room to the first lieutenant.
II. He is to keep the keys of the old, and is never to suffer the hatches to be unlocked without his knowledge, and is to take care when it is opened that one of his mates attend, who is always to be the last person out of the hold, in order that no accidents arise from lights, and, that he may see that the hatches are properly locked and secured.
III. Every morning the master, accompanied by the boatswain, will examine the rigging fore and aft, also from each mast-head down, and report its condition to the first lieutenant.
IV. He will pay great attention to the stowing of the provisions, chains, cables, and every article that can affect the ship's trim.
V. On the arrival at, and previous to the departure of the ship from port, he will note the ship's draft forward and aft, and the height of the lower port amidships, and enter it in the log. He will also send a memorandum thereof to the captain.
VI. He will frequently measure the log-lines and lead-lines, the fourteen and twenty-eight seconds glasses. The lines must be forty-eight feet to the mile, and plenty of stray line allowed.
VII. He will have the log-book written up in the prescribed form and sent into the captain every day to be inspected by the captain. He will see that all transactions are noted on the log.
VIII. He must see that tiers are kept clear and clean; that every article of ground tackle is ready for immediate use, and that pins and shackles are free from rust and ready to slip or shift. He will report their condition to the first lieutenant.
IX. When at anchor, he will be particular that the hawse is kept open, and, if riding by hemp cable, he will see that there is no chafing or injury for want of service; no want, at any time, of nippers, plaits, rounding, mats and parsling well distributed.
X. He will see that the oldest provisions are stowed at top, in order that they may be used first.
XI. He must be present at the receipt of all stores, and have them noted on the log.
XII. It is his duty to keep the ship's reckoning by lunar observations, chronometer, and dead reckoning, and to take single and double altitudes of the sun and moon, and altitudes of the north star whenever it can be had.
XIII. When at sea he will report the ship's position daily at noon; will every day note in the log book the quantities of wood and water expended and remaining; will observe the bearings of all capes, headlands, and the nearest danger, the bearings of towns and points, and send a memorandum thereof to the captain at 8 A.M., at meridian, and at 8 P.M.; and whenever, either in the day or night time, the ship shall be approaching the land or any shoals, he must be on deck and keep a good look-out, always sounding to inform himself of the position of the ship.
XIV. He will be very particular in working up his day's work before sending it to the captain.
XV. At sea he will be particular in taking sights for the chronometers; also amplitudes for the correction of the variation of the compass.
XVI. He will wind up the chronometers every morning at 8 o'clock, and report them to the officer of the deck. He will also be particular to have the deck time-piece wound up and regulated daily.
XVII. Whenever the ship comes to anchor, he is to sound a quarter of a mile around the ship, and will note the soundings on the log.
XVIII. When at anchor he will always keep the tiers clear for heaving up or veering chain or cables; he is frequently to examine the hawse. If at single anchor, the other must be clear and ready for letting go, and when moored, the sheet-tier and anchor must be kept clear, and hawsers, tow-lines and kedges in readiness for use.
XIX. He will daily inspect the stowage of the hold, and its cleanliness, and report to the first lieutenant.
XX. He is to keep a clothes list of all men under his command.
XXI. When light is wanted in the hold, it must receive the master's approbation, must be kept in a sound lantern, and must be attended by a midshipman and ship's corporal.
XXII. He is responsible for staying the mast and the trim of the ship, unless the captain directs otherwise. The boatswain is to be under his directions, and will assist him in this duty and all other duties connected with the rigging, cables and anchors.
XXIII. He will pay particular attention to the requirements of the Ordnance Instructions under the head of "Master."
I. The surgeon, or his assistant, is always to be on board. He will cause a written report of the sick to be made to the captain every morning at 10 o'clock, at which time he will point out any improvement which may conduce to the health of the crew.
II. He shall frequently inspect the provisions, liquors and waters which may be served out, and report the same to the captain when unsound. He shall likewise make known of any want of care of cleanliness in the preparation of the food for the crew, or any instance of improper clothing or personal neglect of which he may be cognizant; in short, everything which may come within the sphere of his knowledge as conductive or conflicting against the comfort and health of the ship's company.
III. When the number of sick is so great as to require additional attendance, proper persons must be appointed on his application to the first lieutenant.
IV. The assistant surgeon will, in the absence of the surgeon, be held accountable for the duties of the surgeon.
I. No issues of any kind are to be made by the paymaster to any of the crew, except upon requisitions made out by the divisional officers and approved by the captain; and the divisional officers will attend and superintend those issues.
II. It is his duty to inspect, as far as practicable, all provisions previous to their being sent on board.
III. He will examine into the condition of all stores and other articles in his department, and, should he find any article to be damaged, or likely to perish, he will immediately report in writing to the captain.
IV. Whenever the captain orders the allowance of any article to be reduced, the paymaster will show the written order to the master, in order that it may be noted on the log-book.
V. He will take charge of, and place in his storeroom, the clothing of all men who have deserted, or who are supposed to have deserted.
The marine officer will be held responsible for the good order and soldierlike appearance of the marines. In port, the marines are to be excused from watch and all ordinary ship's duty, unless otherwise particularly directed by the captain. An officer's guard will be dressed, except in bad weather, and paraded on the quarter deck as soon as the duties of the ship will permit, and kept ready for duty until sunset.
The marine officer has the detailing of guards, posting of sentinels, and charge of all prisoners. The orders given to the sentinels are to pass through the non-commissioned officers of the guard, who will immediately inform the marine officer of the day.
The marine officer will make a written report every morning by 9 o'clock of the state of the guard, to the captain.
The guard will have a place allotted to them by the first lieutenant of the ship, and sufficient time to clean their arms.
At sea, the marines are regularly watched, and they are under the immediate orders of the officer of the deck, the same as the rest of the crew.
The marine officer will, at all times, when a muster of the crew takes place, see that his guard is perfectly prepared.
I. All the forward officers are day officers, but may have night watches assigned to them by the captain, when circumstances require.
II. They will frequently examine everything in their respective departments during blowing weather, or when carrying a press of sail, and report to the first lieutenant, should they find anything out of order.
III. They are held responsible for the expenditure of all stores in their departments, of which they will make weekly reports to the first lieutenant.
I. The boatswain will aid the master in his duties, and, on the forecastle, will see that the rigging is kept clear and damages promptly reported and repaired.
II. Every morning he will examine the rigging fore and aft, and from each mast-head down, and report to the first lieutenant.; and, at 8 P.M., will report to the officer of the deck, as well as to the first lieutenant, that the running gear is clear for the night.
I. The gunner is held responsible for everything appertaining to the magazine, batteries, armorers' department &c., and will see that everything belonging to them is in readiness for action.
II. He will report to the first lieutenant daily at 8 A.M., the general condition of the battery, and at 8 P.M., that it is clear of incumbrances, and secure for the night.
III. He will frequently examine the shot, and see that they are in good order, and can freely pass through the former, and, in the event of anything belonging to his department being wanted, or out of order, will report to the first lieutenant immediately.
IV. He will make himself throughly acquainted with the various duties required of him, as laid down in the Ordnance Instructions, and be particular in performing whatever may be required therein. He will particularly note and observe those articles referring to the magazine.
V. He shall attend personally to the reception on board, and proper distribution, of all ordnance, equipments and stores. He is to be especially careful that the equipments and stores belonging to the magazine are arraigned therein, in conformity to Ordnance Instructions.
VI. He shall carefully observe the instructions for distinguishing the various charges for all class of guns, shall stow all caps, primers, and other articles containing fulminating matter, in a proper place, under lock and key; they are on no account to be put in the magazine.
VII. No coopering is to be done in the magazine. If a light is used, he shall be careful never to have it in front, when hooping, or heading, or unhooping a barrel, and shall be very careful not to suffer the metal adze to be struck against the copper hoops, but always have the wooden setter applied to them to convey the stroke. The mallet or adze shall have a becket through the handle, to go over the wrist.
VIII. Whenever he is directed to strike guns below, or to prepare them for transportation, he will have the bore washed with fresh water, carefully sponged, throughly dried, and coated with melted tallow, and a wad dipped in the same material inserted, and connected with a tompion by a laniard. He is to put in the tompion securely, and stop the vent by a greased leather vent-plug, and by puttying it over.
IX. He is not to use salt water in cleaning guns or equipments, and is to keep them as dry as possible. But as it will often happen that the brass sheaves, iron pins of blocks for gun tackles and other articles and equipments, will become set fast by rust, he will, whenever this is the case, cause the same to be removed, well oiled or greased, and put in proper condition.
X. Whenever the magazines or shell rooms are opened, he is to take every precaution to guard against accidents by fire, and shall examine all the men stationed in or about the magazine, to see that they have no improper articles about their person, and are in the prescribed magazine dress, a worsted shirt to reach the knees, without metal buttons, and shoes with soft soles and light uppers. He will see that all the articles for sweeping and removing loose power are at hand, and that those operations are performed before the magazine is closed.
XI. When the guns are ordered to be drawn, he is to be particularly attentive to assure himself that no shot or wad is left in any gun. In saluting, he is to guard against accident in loading, pointing, and firing.
XII. The keys of the magazine are always to be kept in the possession of the commanding officer, and the magazine is never to be opened without his express order.
XIII. The gunner will promptly make out, and send into the captain, the quarterly account of expenditures.
XIV. After an engagement, he is to apply to the captain, or commanding officer, for a survey on the powder, shot, and other stores remaining under his charge.
I. The carpenter is responsible for the good order of the spars, boats, cistern cocks, hull and decks, and he is to see that their are no chafes, and at all times have his tools, axes, &c., in good order and ready for service, and is to take care of the spare spars, planks, oars and lumber.
II. He will be very particular in the examination of the mast and yards, which he is to inspect every day, and in heavy weather, every four hours. All the pump gear must be kept in prime order for immediate use, and a sufficient number of shot plugs at hand, the ship's axes kept sharp, fixed to each mast ready for use; but they are not to be removed without an order from the quarter-deck or the first lieutenant.
III. In the morning watch, he shall superintend scrubbing ship outside, mending paint and cleaning copper.
IV. At sea he shall report to the executive officer at 8 A.M., the condition of every thing in his department and at 8 P.M., his preparations for the night.
I. The sail maker is responsible for the care and good order of the sails, which are never to be stowed away damp, or in bad order; he must at all times have them ready to bend and fit for immediate service and ready to go to the yards.
II. He shall make a general report to the executive officer daily at 8 A.M.
I. The midshipmen are never to quit the deck until regularly relieved, either at meal hours, or at the expiration of their watches.
II. Whenever they are sent with a watering party in charge of a boat, they must recollect that the men are committed to their charge, and no circumstance can warrant a breach of this important duty.
III. Every proper indulgence will be extended to the deserving and the Honorable Secretary of the Navy will be made acquainted with their merit.
IV. They are to keep journals, and on the first and fifteenth of every month they must be sent to the captain for inspection.
V. They are to supply themselves with sextants or quadrants and such books as are necessary in seamanship and navigation.
VI. In their intercourse with each other a gentlemanly and proper deportment must be observed. Improper familiarities in manner or language must be avoided, and reflections on each other's conduct are strictly forbidden. Loud talking and boisterous mirth in their messes disturb others, and will not be permitted. Good manners and proper decorum are alike indispensable from the officer and gentleman.
VII. The first lieutenant will report all improprieties, which will be properly noticed; only the gentlemanly and well behaved will be indulged.
VIII. The midshipmen will send their reckoning to the first lieutenant daily, by two bells, P.M.
IX. The midshipmen of the ship are not to remain out of the ship after sunset, without special permission of the captain; and the first lieutenant, or the officer acting as executive, will see that this order is strictly complied with.
I. The yeoman is to charge himself with, and is accountable for all articles of ordnance stores which may be placed in the store-room under his charge, and is not to issue or expend any article, except by order, or authority from, the captain or executive officer.
II. He is to open and close the store-rooms at the hours appointed by the captain or executive officer, and at no other time.
III. He will promptly make out, and send in to the captain, his weekly and quarterly reports.
IV. He will pay particular attention to the cleanliness of the store-rooms, and their nice arrangement.
I. The master-at-arms is to take charge of all prisoners, and is at the head of the police on the berth-deck; he will punctually send in to the captain the morning report of prisoners, and, on the first of each month, the monthly report of prisoners, offenses, and punishment.
II. He will keep a register of prisoners, offenses, and punishments, and by whom punishment is ordered.
III. At general quarters, and at specified hours, he will, assisted by the ship's corporal, see that the galley fire and all unauthorized lights are put out, and report to the officer of the deck.
I. Drunkenness, quarreling with each other, absenting themselves from the ship without leave, smuggling liquor aboard, or selling any of their clothes, are prohibited, and every one found guilty will be punished.
II. They are to be in messes. One of the mess is to be appointed every Monday to keep the berth-deck, mess-chests, and mess utensils clean the following week, and he is held responsible for any neglect that may occur. None but men belonging (when in port) to boats are exempt from this duty, except by order of the captain or first lieutenant.
III. They have permission to stop one ration from every eight rations, to be received in kind or in money from the mess; and every man may have his ration of grog stopped, and be paid for it every three months.
IV. No grog money will be paid unless that part of the ration remains undrawn for one month.
V. The men will at all times keep their bodies clean, and wash and bathes as often as practicable in summer, and they will be clean in their apparel, so they can be mustered at nine o'clock or half past nine o'clock by divisions or at general quarters.
VI. It is not expected that the crew will put on their mustering or best suits, without special order to that effect.
VII. Upon the loss of any clothes, bedding, money, or other articles, the loser is immediately to make it known to the officer of the watch, who is to acquaint the first lieutenant, who will take such measures as may be proper to recover the article and discover the thief.
VIII. No man is permitted to appropriate to himself any clothes or other articles that he may at any time find about the ship, for, if he can not find the owner, he is commanded to take them to the officer of the watch on the quarter deck.
IX. Any man finding himself ill, is to make known his complaint, without loss of time, to the surgeon or one of his assistants.
X. The crew will be allowed one hour to each meal, and, when at it, it is expected that they will be as silent as possible and civil to each other; and should the cook of the mess not be as attentive as he should be, he must be reported to the officer of the deck, who will make his report to the first lieutenant for correction.
XI. Should any differences occur with each other, they will not use reproachful words, gestures, or menaces, but refer to the officer of the deck, or first lieutenant.
XII. When all hands are called to perform any special duty, the crew will immediately repair with alacrity and silence to the stations assigned to them, and are frequently to consult the several station bills, and to ascertain from their respective captains, whether of forecastle, tops, or after guard, where they are stationed and the special duty they each have to perform.
XIII. In the performance of all duty silence must, at all times, be strictly observed.
XIV. Should any man on board suffer any grievance, or supposed grievance, he is to report to the officer of the deck , or first lieutenant, for an examination into it, who will report the facts to for the decision of the captain.
XV. Should any of the crew wish to make a representation of any grievance, or want of indulgence, they will do so in a respectful manner to the first lieutenant, by a deputation of petty officers, consisting of one boatswain's mate, one quarter gunner, one gunner's mate, one captain of the forecastle, and one captain of the tops; and the first lieutenant will report the circumstances to the captain for his decision.
XVI. It is expected, and ordered, that the crew will, at all times, be respectful to all officers, and never pass the, particularly on the quarter-deck, without touching their hats.
XVII. The men will be allowed proper washing days, when they will have all their clothes, which may require it, washed and put in order; and, whenever the duties of the ship will permit, they will be allowed to put their clothes in order.
XVIII. When any men are away from the ship on duty, or in boats, or otherwise, it will be the duty of their messmates to take care of their hammocks, bags, clothes, &c., and that of the cooks of the messes to take care that provisions are put by for them.
XIX. The boys of the ship are more especially under the charge of the master-at-arms, who is to keep a list of them, and of their clothes, and to have an especial eye to their conduct, habits, and cleanliness. Every morning at 7 A.M., he is to take care that they are assembled in the gangway, attended by himself and one of the ship's corporals, when, after having inspected, he is to report them to the officer of the deck, and receive his orders.
XX. If no schoolmaster is allowed, the instruction of the boys is recommended to the fostering care of the chaplain.
XXI. The crew are expected to be clean, shaved and dressed by ten o'clock every Sunday morning, when they will be mustered by the officers of their respective divisions, who will examine and report to the first lieutenant when ready for general muster at half-past ten o'clock A.M.
XXII. The happiness and comfort of the crew mainly depend upon themselves and their own good conduct. They captain will extend to them every comfort and indulgence that duty and circumstances will permit. Their own pride and sense of propriety ought to induce them to do their duty, to conform to the easy rules of conduct prescribed for them, and thereby make their ship an example of subordination.
XXIII. No clothes are to be hung up on any other than regular washing days, without permission of first lieutenant.
The duty of all persons on the black list is, all dirty work, and every kind of extra duty both night a day, so that they may be called upon at any moment. The black list shall hang during the cruise, at the cabin door, in charge of the captain's orderly. The names all persons, with their crimes and punishment, shall be recorded in this register.
OF THE CONVOY OF MERCHANT SHIPS UNDER THE PROTECTION OF MEN-OF-WAR
To take care of large fleets there should in the convey be a number of men-of-war, which are to be distributed ahead, or astern, on the wings of the fleet, which is always to be kept in order of convoy on three, four or more columns, according to the number it may be composed of; some other men-of-war are always to be sent, on the look-out, in order to be informed of what passes at a distance, and warned in good time of the approach of the enemy, or any other danger.
If the man-of-war sent to look-out should discover an enemy of superior force, he will make it known by signal, and perhaps it may be thought advisable that they should steer a difference course from the fleet, in order to deceive the enemy in sight.
The men-of-war are to hold themselves in order of convoy a little ahead and to the windward of the weather column of the fleet, because in that position they will be able with promptitude to attend wherever their presence may be necessary. The scouts will repeat the signals one to another, with celerity and exactness, that their purport may with all possible expedition be made to the commanding officer, who on the other hand must not neglect to have all suspicious or neutral ships boarded.
The degree of progress which the whole convoy will make will be regulated by that of the worst-going ships, which however are to be taken in tow, or abandoned when found to cause too great a loss of time, for sometimes it is better to risk a small loss than expose the whole by delay.
There should be placed between the columns swift light steamers to maintain order, and keep the vessels in their stations. Their particular duty will be to get the tardy ships to make more sail or steam, and to oblige those which may be out of their posts to resume it; in the evening they will give an account to the frigate having charge of going the rounds, of those which have not well maneuvered, and these will make their report to the flag officer. During the night the same order will be maintained, except with respect to the look-out ships, which are to be called in within a certain distance of the fleet. They are to be particularly careful to oblige all straggling ships to return to the convoy, and to chase, and fire if necessary, on all strange vessels, in order to give the alarm.
GENERAL ORDERS IN CASE OF FIRE.
In the ordinary cases of alarm of fire, the officers of the watch, or any commissioned officer, is to order the drummers to beat to quarters; or, if the drummers should not be at hand, to pipe to quarters, and ring the alarm bell. The first division of boarders, as firemen, are instantly to repair to the quarter deck, with the quarter gunners of the first division, and arrange themselves in the following order, viz: the boarders with the quarter gunners on the starboard side; the firemen on the port side, with their buckets; the engine men, with their officers, are to man the engine, and hold themselves in readiness to transport it to any point of the ship that may be directed.
The boatswain and his mates to have the water buckets passed on the forecastle, ready for use, and the head pumps and stern pumps manned and fetched. The first lieutenant is to repair immediately to the place from where the alarm arose; the surgeon and his assistants, the paymaster with his clerk, and steward, are to examine their respective store-rooms, and report the same to the quarter-deck as soon as possible; the master's mates of the hold, master-at-arms and ship's corporal and the captain of the hold, are to repair to their tiers, and at the same time supply the cistern from the bilge-cock. The gunner, carpenter, boatswain and yeoman to repair immediately to the doors of their respective store-rooms, but not to open them on any account, without an order from the quarter-deck. The carpenter, with four of his crew, are to assemble in the port-gangway with axes and mauls, and there await orders; the pumps are to be rigged and manned and fetched by the carpenter's mates and remaining crew; the marines, with their officers, are instantly to appear with their arms, drawn up in four columns abaft the wheel, and there await in readiness to execute such orders as may be found necessary. The offices of every grade are particularly requested to preserve silence among the people, and prevent confusion.
In time of action, the men particularly selected and quartered as firemen, are always to be ready to seize their bucket when order to extinguish fire in any part of the ship. The men stationed on the berth-deck, as per quarter bill, are to assist the firemen by passing water from the tank in the main hold; it will therefore be the particular duty of the master-at-arms to see the orders carried into effect, to see that the tanks in the main hold are immediately in readiness to supply the water, also the suction hose passed overboard and worked by the engine men; and when the ship is on fire she must be hove-to, in order that the suction hose may supply the engine with water.
OFFICIAL HONORS AND CEREMONIES.
I. When the President of the United States is to visit the ship, man the yards as soon has he can be made out in his boat. Receive him at the gangway with eight side boys, and all the officers in full dress, on the quarter-deck; then with the union jack at the main, fire one gun for every state; at the last gun, pipe down. When the President is leaving man the yards when the side is piped, and when his boat attains the proper distance, salute with the same number of guns as the first, pipe down at the last gun, but let the union-jack fly till he is out of sight.
II. The chief magistrate of any civilized nation shall be saluted in the same manner as the President, only substituting the proper flag at the main and firing twenty-one guns.
III. In all salutes, except those to chief magistrates, hoist the appropriate national flag at the fore.
IV. For Vice-President of the United States, or corresponding dignitaries, nineteen guns.
V. For heads of departments, Chief Justice of the United States, American or foreign ministers, and for governors of states, seventeen guns.
VI. For the senior flag-officer in the United States Navy, seventeen guns, and the same for an admiral. No order has been announced by the Navy Department prescribing the number of guns to be fired as a salute for the senior flag officer, Charles A. Stewart.
VII. For flag-officers who have been captains twenty years and upwards, fifteen guns, and the same for a vice admiral.
VIII. For flag-officers who have been captains less than twenty years, thirteen guns, and the same for a rear admiral, and for charges-d'-affaires
IX. For consuls-general, eleven guns.
X. For consuls, nine guns.
XI. Salutes of captains, in United States service, are returned with nine guns, of commanders with seven guns. Other nations, return their salutes gun for gun.
A FEW RULES FOR MANEUVERING.
I. SHIPS CROSSING NEAR EACH OTHER. When ships must cross near each other on different tacks, the ship on the starboard tack is to keep to windward, and that on the port tack is to keep to leeward.
II. ACCOMMODATING SHIPS UNDER PARTICULAR ORDERS. When any ships are going to execute particular orders, such as going to chase, or making sail to their stations, every ship is to accommodate as much as possible, without leaving its own station, either by bearing up or keeping their wind, so as to enable those ships to perform the duty required.
III. THE LINE OF BEARING. The fleet will generally steer not nearer than one point to the wind. This judicious regulation is to enable leewardly ships to keep in their allotted stations. Hence it follows, that the line of bearing for either tack will not be strictly the close-hauled line, but one point from it, or seven points from the direction of the wind, instead of six. This line of bearing is always to be preserved (as in the instances of tacking or veering together whenever changes may be made in the course by the fleet together). But if the course be altered in succession, then the former line of bearing becomes changed, as in the instance of veering or tacking in succession. Thus, therefore, the last line of bearing is to be kept when the course is altered together.
IV. SHIPS OUT OF THEIR STATION. Ships in order of sailing are to be kept in the wake of leading ships of their respective columns, without regard to their second ahead; and therefore ships that are to leeward of their respective leaders, as well as those that are too far astern, are deemed out of their station. It is necessary to observe, that whatever ship is actually at the head of the line of a squadron or division, is to be considered in all respects, for the time being, as the leading ship, when the regular leading ship may have been detached upon any particular service. As ships frequently fall to leeward for want of after-sail, and as this is the most inconvenient irregularity, it should be particularly guarded against; which might often be done by keeping such a sail as will preserve proper steerage-way, and hauling at the same time close to the wind, to prevent getting ahead.
V. PRECAUTION FOR SUCCESSIVE MOVEMENTS. When the fleet is to execute any evolution in succession, such as tacking, veering, going large, or hauling closer, particular attention must be paid to preserve the appointed distance between ship and ship, by either taking in or increasing sail. For when a ship tacks or hauls close, it is evident that she will need an additional of sail to preserve the requisite distance from her second astern; but on the contrary, when a ship is to keep away from the wind, it would be proper to lessen her sail in proportion as her rate of sailing is increased by going large. In the first case (hauling close), it may even be sometimes necessary for the second astern respectively to bear away a little more from the wind than their first course, while their second ahead hauls to the wind; by which the stated interval may be better preserved, the movements of the second ahead facilitated and the ships form more readily into each other's wake when come to the wind but the necessity and extent in this precaution will depend on the number of points which the new course differs from the former one. When the requisite distance between ship and ship is for any length of time materially exceeded by any ship, or in cases of missing stays, or not putting into stays in due time, the ship next in succession is to take and occupy the vacant space, till the first may be able to resume her proper station.
VI. THE COURSE. In order of sailing, the course (if not otherwise directed), is taken from the example of the flag officer; the leading ships of the squadrons, their respective leaders. But if the fleet be in order of battle, the course is taken from the ships leading the van of the fleet.
VII. POSITION OF SQUADRONS AND SHIPS CHANGED. When, in consequence of any evolution, the position of either squadron or ships be changed (as the van becoming the rear, or leading ship becoming the sternmost, &c.), such squadrons and ships are, till further order or change, to perform all services incident to their new station.
VIII. DRAWING INTO CLOSE ORDERS. This is done by the ships closing nearer to the centre, or ships of the senior flag officer in the line or squadron. If the ships, when the signal is made, are at four cables, they close to three; if at three cables, to one and a half; if at one and a half, they close to one; if at one, they close to half a cable.
If the fleet be in line of battle and the leading squadron draws ahead of the centre squadron, thus materially opening the prescribed distance between ship and ship, the last ship of such leading squadron is to close back to her proper distance from the leading ship of the next squadron; and thus the second ahead (in the van squadron), are respectively and in turn to close back till the proper distance is required.
This rule equally applies to the divisions of squadrons that draw ahead of their respective succeeding divisions.
IX. FORMING INTO MORE OPEN ORDER. If the ships, upon signal made, are one cable and a half asunder, they are to open to two cables; if at two cables, to open to three; if at three, to open to four; increasing each time the signal is made about one cable's length. When in time of battle, and the rear squadrons press upon either of those leading them, the order is to be opened forward in succession by the ships of the squadron ahead.
X. TO TACK IN SUCESSION WHEN SAILING BY THE WIND IN ORDER OF SAILING BY DIVISIONS. The commanders of the different squadrons put in stays together; and when the leading ship of the weather division of each squadron is arrived in the wake of her commander (then about on the other tack), the lead ships of the division put in stays together, and are followed by the ships of their respective divisions. The leading ship of the lee division of each squadron is, when tacked, to pass astern of the last ship of her immediate weather divisions on the former tack.
XI. TO HAUL TO THE WIND IN SUCCESSION FROM SAILING LARGE. No. 1. The leading ship hauls first to the wind, and the others as they arrive in the wake of the leading ship.
TO ALTER THE COURSE IN SUCCESSION. No. 2. The leading ship of the line, squadron or division, first alters to the course directed; the other ships take their stations astern of her in succession, as they arrive at that point of her wake where she began the evolution.
TO VEER TOGETHER WHEN IN ORDER OF SAILING BY DIVISIONS. No 3. This is performed by the leaders of the divisions, proceeded by the commanders of squadrons veering together, followed by ships of the line in their respective divisions. Thus, after the commanders of squadrons have veered, there will be six ships veering at the same time.
XII. TO TACK THE COLUMNS TOGETHER. This evolution cannot be performed safely by all the ships at the same instant; no yet is it necessary that one ship should finishing going about before her next puts in stays. But the sternmost ships of the three columns put in stays together, and when they are observed to be so, their second ahead immediately put their helm down; and so on through the whole fleet; each column will then be in bow and quarter line.
RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE ENGINEER DEPARTMENT
OF THE U.S. FRIGATE RONAOKE.
I. All repairs and adjustments of the different parts of the steam machinery will be effected under the immediate superintendence of the assistant engineer having charge of the particular part under repairs or adjustments, who will in all chases receive his instructions from the chief engineer.
II. The machinery will be divided, for the above purpose, among the assistant engineers, as follows, to wit:
First Assistant I. N. will have charge of the after engine, and all machinery abaft within the ship.
First Assistant H. B. N., the forward engine, bilge pumps and screw propeller.
Second Assistant T. J. G., the starboard boilers.
Second Assistant R. A. C., the port boilers.
Third Assistant G. J. B., the smoke-pipe, and hoisting engines, and reels.
Third Assistant W. W., the auxiliary boiler, and the fresh water condenser.
Third Assistant A. J., the starboard Worthington pumps.
Third Assistant A. H., the port Worthington pumps.
III. When under steam, the assistant engineers will arrange themselves in watches, as follows:
|ENGINEER OF THE WATCH||ASST. ENGINEER OF THE WATCH|
|1st Asst. I. N.||3d Asst. A. H.|
|2d Asst. T. J. G.||3rd Asst. W. W.|
|1st Asst. H. B. N.||3rd Asst. A. J.|
|2nd Asst. R. A. C.||3rd Asst. G. J. B.|
IV. Regular sea watches will be maintained at all times when the fires are lighted, and until 8 A.M., the next day after they are put out.
V. When the fires are banked, the chief engineer will use his discretion with regard to whether more than one engineer will be required in the engine-room. When it is decided that only one is necessary, the assistant engineer of the watch will keep the first two hours, and the engineer of the watch the last two; the latter writing the remarks and signing the log for the whole watch.
VI. Upon the first change of watches after the fires have been banked, unless otherwise especially directed by the chief engineer, the port watch of the watch of firemen and coal-heavers coming on, will keep the first two hours, and the starboard watch the last two hours. This will continue until the fires are ordered to be spread or hauled.
VII. When the ship is in port and the fires out, the assistant engineer will keep day's duty, maintaining the same order as in sea watches; that is, they will relieve in the same order, and there will always be an engineer of the watch, and an assistant engineer of the watch, one of whom must be in the engine room at all times during working hours.
VIII. When the ship is at sea, under sail, with the fires out, day's duty will be kept from 8 A.M. to 8 P.M., with the same watches of officers during the night as with fires banked; those having the day's duty keeping the next morning's watch. Quarter watches of the oilers only being required during these night watches.
IX. When the fires are out, unless otherwise especially ordered, all hands will be employed during the morning watch in cleaning the engines and dependencies, the whole being reported to the chief engineer as ready for inspection at 9 A.M.
X. In conducting the duties of the morning watch, the engineer of the watch will give his personal superintendence to the engine and fire-rooms,and send the assistant of the watch to look after the work going on upon the spar, gun and berth decks. The engineer of the watch visiting those parts sufficiently often to direct properly his assistant and inspecting the whole personally, before reporting the department to the chief engineer.
XI. Upon the arrival of the vessel in port, each assistant engineer will report his part of the machinery - designated in Rule II. - ready for sea before asking permission to leave the ship on liberty, except on Sundays, or such other times as he is prevented from carrying on his work.
XII. Engineers conducting the work of overhauling, or repairing their respective parts, will obtain the requisite number of men from the engineer of the watch, who will make out the list required by each, and muster them over to the respective engineers for whom they are to work. In performing this distribution, the engineer of the watch will consult, as far as possible, the wishes of the different gentlemen with regard to the individuals each requires; at the same time, all must remember that he is responsible for the general conduct of the department, and that his relative rank does not in any manner affect his rights or powers as engineer of the watch.
XIII. The general duties of the engineer of the watch, when a number, -or all, of the men are distributed as above, to Work under the immediate supervision of others, are to facilitate as much as possible all parts of the work going on, to regulate the time of commencing and leaving off work, and to regulate the expenditure of the stores.
XIV. When coaling ship, the third assistants will be relieved from keeping watch, and instead will be distributed as follows:
Third assistant G. J. B. will prepare the hoisting engines and reels for hoisting in the coal, and see that they are kept in good working order while in operation. He will report to the officer of the deck when every thing is prepared on his part for hoisting in the coal over the starboard side, and also when, from any cause connected with the stow age, or the hoisting machinery, it is necessary to suspend the hoisting. He will employ the starboard watch of coal heavers to stow the starboard bunker, which duty he will see properly performed. He will station at the hoisting engines on the gun deck one oiler, directing him to oil them and keep them in good order, and to report immediately to himself any defect which may develop itself while they are running. He will station one fireman at the levers of each hoisting reel, and one at the throttle valve of the engines, and see that they understand and perform correctly their duties.
Third assistant A. H. will employ the port watch of coal-heavers, and stow the port bunker, and give the same attention to the reception of the coal coming over the port side as that prescribed for third assistant G. J. B., with regard to the coal which comes over the starboard side.
There will always be one of these two gentlemen on the spar deck when the coal is actually being hoisted on board, the one being relieved by the other whenever it is necessary for him to go below and look after the stowage, or to go to his meals
It is intended that, with the exception of keeping the hoisting engines and reels in good working order, this duty of receiving and stowing the coal, will be equally divided between these two gentlemen; Mr. B. however, being the senior officer, will be held responsible that every thing of a general character goes on properly.
Third assistant engineers W. W. and A. J. will tally the coal as it is received, and will be stationed for that purpose at any place where the measurement is carried on. One of them will always be present while the measurement is going on. Mr. W. being the senior officer, will be held responsible for a correct account being kept, and he will furnish the chief engineer at the end of each day with his account of the receipts of the coal during that day.
XV. When in port and the engines have been made ready for sea, there will be at all times on board the day's duty and the relief; the others can leave the ship on liberty in accordance with the rules prescribed for officers generally.
XVI. Whenever the engineer of the watch is ordered by the chief engineer to start the fires, raise or lower the smoke-pipe, start the fire in the forge, or anything which affects the movements of the ship, or the appearance of things on deck, he will send a message (by an officer when practicable) to the officer of the deck, reporting to him that he has received orders to do so and so.
XVII. When the engines are in operation, and it is found necessary to stop them suddenly from any cause, the engineer of the watch will immediately send for the chief engineer, and also report to the officer of the deck the fact of stopping, and the cause, when it is sufficiently well known.
XVIII. Whenever, at any time, the engines are in a state of rest, and the engineer of the watch wishes to start then, he will, before doing so, inform the officer of the deck, and will await the return of the messenger bringing permission to move them, before starting.
XIX. When there are no night watches kept in the engine room, the engineers of the watch will inspect the engine and fire rooms, not omitting the shaft passage, at 8 P.M., and when he is satisfied that everything is correct, all persons out of the place, and all lights out, he will lock up the doors, and report to the chief or senior engineer on board.
XX. The firemen and coal heavers are not to be detained from their meals, or deprived of the full time allowed for that purpose to the ship's company, when it is possible to avoid it.
Whenever it is necessary to have work going on out of the ordinary working hours, watches or parts of watches, according to the number required, and these will be alternated so as to distribute the extra labor as equally as possible among all.
Whenever it is practicable, the engineer of the watch will stop all work thirty minutes before the meal hours, in order that the men may have an opportunity to wash themselves before their meals.
Officers will be careful not to use harsh or provoking language to the men, though prompt and strict obedience to all orders must be firmly insisted upon.
A. C. S.
July 12th 1861.