Preservation of the Crew.
651 As cleanliness, dryness, and pure air are essential to health, the Commanding Officer is to use his utmost endeavor to secure each in the greatest degree possible. Sea water is not to be admitted to the holds, the ship is always to be pumped dry, the pump-well frequently swabbed out and dried, and chloride of lime and whitewash used wherever it is practicable. He is to take care that there is a free passage fore and aft for water, and that those places where from the trim of the ship a lodgment may occur, be bailed and swabbed out frequently. In steam vessels, especially, he is to take care that every possible means be taken for the free circulation of air ; that the bilges be frequently cleansed and whitewashed, and that all offensive matter be removed from the limbers. The man-hole plates of the coal-bunkers should be kept off during the day, whenever the state of the weather will permit.
652 He will personally inspect the vessel frequently, on which occasions he shall be accompanied by the Executive Officer, and shall satisfy himself that nothing has been neglected for the efficiency of the vessel or the health of the crew,
653 He shall cause the bedding and clothing of the crew to be inspected by the officers of divisions once a month, and the bedding and clothing aired and cleansed once a fortnight, when the weather will permit.
654 He shall not allow men to sleep about the deck in situations where they will be exposed to night dews or rains, to sleep in wet clothes or bedding, or to take them below the gun-deck, when it can be avoided.
655 He shall cause the crew to bathe or wash themselves daily, and when they are washing decks or scrubbing clothes or hammocks, he will direct that they take off their shoes and stockings and roll up their trousers, unless the temperature of the water or air should be at or below 45° Fahrenheit.
656 He shall pay great attention to the suitable clothing of the men, obliging them to make such changes as, in the opinion of the Medical Officers and himself, will be most conducive to health, according to the changes of climate to which they may be subjected.
657 He shall take care that the boats' crews have their breakfasts before leaving the vessel, and their other meals at the usual times, except special duties shall prevent it.
658 He shall not allow the boats to be away from the ship after sunset, without his special permission.
659 He shall prevent all unnecessary exposure of those under his command.
660 He shall adopt suitable precautions to prevent the use of improper fruits or of other articles which may endanger the health of the crew.
661 Before water is received on board to be placed in the tanks or for present use, he will cause it to be tested by the senior Medical Officer, and will not permit any to be drunk which is impure.
662 Unless absolutely indispensable, the men are not to be placed on a daily allowance of water of less than one gallon.
663 When in port he may cause fresh meat and vegetables to be issued to the crew, not exceeding four days in the week, unless the Surgeon may recommend more frequent issue as necessary to their health.
664 He will require from the Surgeon a daily report of the state of the sick, and, whenever he may think proper, his opinion of the best means of preserving or restoring health.
665 When men are sent to the hospital, (which is not to be done without the sanction of the superior officer in command of the station, except in cases not admitting of delay,) they are to be accompanied by a Medical Officer, with a statement of the case, who is to see that the clothing and bedding of the men are carefully delivered to the proper officer of the hospital, with a complete list of the same.
666 Whenever sick or wounded men are sent from one vessel to another to be, on the arrival of the latter at her destined port, transferred to a naval hospital, the Commanding Officer of the former, will take especial care to make every necessary arrangement in his power for having them properly attended to while on board the vessel to which they are sent, and also for their being properly placed in the hospital on her arrival. If necessary to insure such attention, a suitable person will be sent in charge of them. Unless for urgent reasons, such sick or wounded men will be sent only in store or supply vessels, or other vessels of the Navy.
667 Men who may be sent to a hospital from a vessel in commission lying in the port where the hospital is located, are to be transferred to the receiving ship.
668 He shall give particular orders that the life-buoys are at all times ready to be dropped, and at sea, and in strong tide- ways in port, shall have men stationed by them. He shall cause them to be examined every evening by the gunner, and their condition reported to the Executive Officer. The quarter boats are to be kept in condition to be immediately lowered, with a crew for each in each watch, in charge of a petty officer.
669 He shall not expose the lives of the men by setting them to do unnecessary work outside the ship at sea or in strong tide-ways. When necessary to employ them outside, every precaution shall be taken to rescue them in case of falling overboard.